The atmosphere of Mars, like most planetary atmospheres, consists of molecules absorbing and emitting in the infrared (IR) and of particles (dust or clouds) that also interact with the IR radiation. This makes the IR spectral range highly effective for the study of the atmospheric composition and thermal structure. Since the first missions to Mars, infrared spectrometers have been used to study the atmosphere. Thermal IR instruments, which sense the emission from the surface and the atmosphere of Mars, as well as near-IR spectrometers, sensitive to the reflected solar radiation, deliver the three-dimensional structure of the atmosphere and permit monitoring of the CO2, H2O, CO, and aerosol cycles over Mars’s seasons. IR spectroscopy at high spectral resolution from the ground or from orbit is the most commonly used method to search for unknown species and to monitor the known minor components of the Martian atmosphere. It is also used to study isotopic ratios essential for understanding the volatile evolution on the planet.
Infrared Remote Sensing of the Martian Atmosphere
Anna Fedorova and Oleg Korablev
Space Security Law
The use and exploration of space by humans is historically implicated with international and national security. Space exploration itself was sparked, in part, by the race to develop intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM), and the strategic uses of space enable the global projection of force by major military powers. The recognition of space as a strategic domain spurred states to develop the initial laws and policies that govern space activities to reduce the likelihood of conflict. Space security, therefore, is a foundational concept to space law. Since the beginning of the Space Age, the concept of security has morphed into a multivariate term, and contemporary space security concerns more than just securing states from the dangers of ICBMs. The prevalence of space technologies across society means that security issues connected to the space domain touch on a range of legal regimes. Specifically, space security law involves components of international peace and security, national security, human security, and the security of the space environment itself.
International Satellite Law
Frans von der Dunk
International satellite law can best be described as that subset of international space law that addresses the operations of satellites in orbit around the Earth. Excluding, therefore, topics such as manned space flight, suborbital space operations, and any activities beyond Earth orbits, this means addressing the use of satellites for telecommunications purposes, for Earth observation and remote sensing, and for positioning, timing, and navigation. These three major sectors of space activities are, in addition to jointly being subject to the body of international space law, each subject to their specific dedicated legal regime—international satellite communications law, international satellite remote sensing law, and international satellite navigation law.
Space Commercialization and the Development of Space Law
Shortly after the launch of the first manmade satellite in 1957, the United Nations (UN) took the lead in formulating international rules governing space activities. The five international conventions (the 1967 Outer Space Treaty, the 1968 Rescue Agreement, the 1972 Liability Convention, the 1975 Registration Convention, and the 1979 Moon Agreement) within the UN framework constitute the nucleus of space law, which laid a solid legal foundation securing the smooth development of space activities in the next few decades. Outer space was soon found to be a place with abundant opportunities for commercialization. Telecommunications services proved to be the first successful space commercial application, to be followed by remote sensing and global navigation services. In the last decade, the rapid development of space technologies has brought space tourism and space mining to the forefront of space commercialization. With more and more commercial activities taking place on a daily basis from the 1980s, the existing space law faces severe challenges. The five conventions, enacted in a time when space was monopolized by two superpowers, failed to take into account the commercial aspect of space activities. While there is an urgent need for new rules to deal with the ongoing trend of space commercialization, international society faces difficulties in adopting new rules due to diversified concerns over national interests and adjusts the legislative strategies by enacting soft laws. In view of the difficulty in adopting legally binding rules at the international level, states are encouraged to enact their own national space legislation providing sufficient guidance for their domestic space commercial activities. In the foreseeable future, it is expected that the development of soft laws and national space legislation will be the mainstream regulatory activities in the space field, especially for commercial space activities.
Space Law: Overview
Space law is composed of disparate elements of ordinary national laws and general international law. It has been created by the agreement of states as to the international law that should govern important technical and technological developments of the later 20th and the 21st century. That agreement is expressed in five general treaties; other treaty-level measures including as to the use of radio, declarations of principle, recommendations on the conduct of space activities, and by state practice. The United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS), serviced by the UN Office of Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA), plays a significant role in the development of the many aspects of space law, as do intergovernmental and nongovernmental agreements together with informal arrangements between space-active bodies.