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date: 15 November 2019

Summary and Keywords

Its past appears to be in constant tension with the present over the question of religious restriction. That tension might properly be understood as a centuries-long struggle between those favoring traditional, pro-clerical views and those espousing anti-clerical, Enlightenment understandings of church–state relations. This tension has given rise to many inconsistencies in legislative actions and public policy decisions around religion, as political power has shifted between the opposing sides at different points in history. This tension continues to the present day.

Keywords: Laïcité, Laïcité, Positive, Laïcité, de Combat, Concordat of 1801, Falloux Laws, Jules Ferry Laws, the 1905 Law of Separation, 1959 Debré, law, Cardinal Jean-Marie Lustiger, Panthéon, Sacré-Cœur Basilica, President François Mitterrand, Zombie Catholic, politics and religion

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