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East Africa: Regional Politics and Dynamics  

Walter O. Oyugi and Jimmy Ochieng

Published Online:
Jun 2019
The East African region historically has comprised Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. The politics of these countries have been shaped by the colonial heritage bequeathed at independence and its ... More

Ecological Modernization and the Politics of Sustainable Development in the Global Palm Oil Industry  

Rory Padfield

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics. Please check back later for the full article. The ... More

Economic and Monetary Union (EMU)  

Lucia Quaglia

Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) is one of the most important policy areas of the European Union (EU). Academic research on EMU in political science is well-established and ever-evolving, ... More

Economic Incentives as Weapons of War  

Katherine Barbieri

Published Online:
Sep 2017
International relations scholars tend to differentiate between a state’s use of military and economic instruments of power and also between rewards and punishments. In conflict scenarios, ... More

Economic Interdependence and Conflict  

Hyo Joon Chang and Scott L. Kastner

Published Online:
Aug 2017
Recent studies on commercial liberalism have paid more attention to microfoundations linking economic interdependence to peace. Using a bargaining model of war, these studies have ... More

Economic Sanction as Foreign Policy  

Yoshiharu Kobayashi

Published Online:
Jul 2017
Economic sanctions are an attempt by states to coerce a change in the policy of another state by restricting their economic relationship with the latter. Between, roughly, the 1960s–1980s, ... More

The Economic Voter Decides  

Mary Stegmaier, Michael S. Lewis-Beck, and Lincoln Brown

Published Online:
May 2019
In democracies, we elect our political leaders by choosing among a rival set of candidates or parties. What makes us pick one over all the others? Do we carefully weigh the platforms of ... More

Ecuador’s Social Movements, Electoral Politics, and Military Coups  

Marc Becker

Published Online:
Jul 2019
In the 200 years since Ecuador gained independence from Spain in 1822, it has experienced many of the social problems that have plagued other Latin American countries. Ecuador experienced ... More

Effectiveness of Peacekeeping Operations  

Jessica Di Salvatore and Andrea Ruggeri

Peacekeeping has been one of the main conflict management tools used by the international community to restore or safeguard peace and security. Since 1948, the United Nations has ... More

The Effectiveness of the World Trade Organization’s Dispute Settlement System  

Soo Yeon Kim

Published Online:
Sep 2017
The World Trade Organization (WTO) dispute settlement system is its judicial arm and enforcement mechanism, designed to assist members in resolving trade disputes that arise between them. ... More

The Effects of Civil War on Post-War Political Development  

Pellumb Kelmendi and Amanda Rizkallah

Published Online:
Feb 2018
Civil war is one of the most devastating and potentially transformative events that can befall a country. Despite an intuitive acknowledgment that civil war is a defining political moment ... More

The Effects of Negative Advertising  

Conor M. Dowling and Yanna Krupnikov

Published Online:
Nov 2016
Since the 1960s there has been an increase in the amount of negative advertising in American campaigns. Although only 10% of advertisements aired in the 1960 campaign were negative, in the ... More

Election Campaigns and Political Mobilization In Africa  

Dan Paget

Published Online:
Apr 2019
Politicians mobilize people to vote by devising messages and imparting them to those people. Many studies examine African electioneering through a framework that distinguishes between ... More

Electoral Choice and Religion: An Overview  

Christopher D. Raymond

A wide body of research has studied the impact of religious cleavages on electoral choice in a range of democracies. This research focuses on two types of religious cleavages. One type of ... More

Electoral Choice and Religion: United States  

Jeremiah J. Castle

Published Online:
Nov 2018
Scholars have identified a variety of mechanisms through which religion could impact vote choice in the United States. Researchers have long recognized that, like other social identities, ... More

Electoral Systems and Policy Outcomes  

Stephanie J. Rickard

Policies as diverse as tariffs, exchange rates, and unemployment insurance vary across democratic countries. In an attempt to explain this cross-national variation, scholars have turned to ... More

Electoral Violence and Political Competition in Africa  

Liisa Laakso

Electoral violence in Africa has garnered a lot of attention in research on African politics. Violence can be the result of manipulation of the electoral process or a reaction to that ... More

Emergencies and the Rule of Law  

Clement Fatovic

Published Online:
May 2019
Despite scholarly disagreements over the meanings of both the rule of law and emergency, there is broad agreement that emergencies often invite and justify departures from the formal ... More

Emerging Powers in Foreign Policy  

Leslie Wehner

Published Online:
May 2017
Emerging powers are usually referred to as states whose increasing material capacities and status-seeking strategies may potentially have an impact on the international system and also ... More

Emotions and Foreign Policy  

Thomas Dolan

Increasingly, scholars are recognizing the influences of emotion on foreign policy decision-making processes. Not merely feelings, emotions are sets of sentimental, physiological, and ... More

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