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Effectiveness of Peacekeeping Operations  

Jessica Di Salvatore and Andrea Ruggeri

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Peacekeeping has been one of the main conflict management tools used by the international community to restore or safeguard peace and security. Since 1948, the United Nations has ... More

The Effectiveness of the World Trade Organization’s Dispute Settlement System  

Soo Yeon Kim

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
The World Trade Organization (WTO) dispute settlement system is its judicial arm and enforcement mechanism, designed to assist members in resolving trade disputes that arise between them. ... More

The Effects of Civil War on Post-War Political Development  

Pellumb Kelmendi and Amanda Rizkallah

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Civil war is one of the most devastating and potentially transformative events that can befall a country. Despite an intuitive acknowledgment that civil war is a defining political moment ... More

The Effects of Negative Advertising  

Conor M. Dowling and Yanna Krupnikov

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
Since the 1960s there has been an increase in the amount of negative advertising in American campaigns. Although only 10% of advertisements aired in the 1960 campaign were negative, in the ... More

Election Campaigns and Political Mobilization In Africa  

Dan Paget

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Politicians mobilize people to vote by devising messages and imparting them to those people. Many studies examine African electioneering through a framework that distinguishes between ... More

Electoral Choice and Religion: An Overview  

Christopher D. Raymond

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
A wide body of research has studied the impact of religious cleavages on electoral choice in a range of democracies. This research focuses on two types of religious cleavages. One type of ... More

Electoral Choice and Religion: United States  

Jeremiah J. Castle

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
Scholars have identified a variety of mechanisms through which religion could impact vote choice in the United States. Researchers have long recognized that, like other social identities, ... More

Electoral Systems and Policy Outcomes  

Stephanie J. Rickard

Policies as diverse as tariffs, exchange rates, and unemployment insurance vary across democratic countries. In an attempt to explain this cross-national variation, scholars have turned to ... More

Electoral Violence and Political Competition in Africa  

Liisa Laakso

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Electoral violence in Africa has garnered a lot of attention in research on African politics. Violence can be the result of manipulation of the electoral process or a reaction to that ... More

Emergencies and the Rule of Law  

Clement Fatovic

Online publication date:
May 2019
Despite scholarly disagreements over the meanings of both the rule of law and emergency, there is broad agreement that emergencies often invite and justify departures from the formal ... More

Emerging Powers in Foreign Policy  

Leslie Wehner

Online publication date:
May 2017
Emerging powers are usually referred to as states whose increasing material capacities and status-seeking strategies may potentially have an impact on the international system and also ... More

Emotions and Foreign Policy  

Thomas Dolan

Online publication date:
May 2018
Increasingly, scholars are recognizing the influences of emotion on foreign policy decision-making processes. Not merely feelings, emotions are sets of sentimental, physiological, and ... More

Emotions in Foreign Policy Decision Making  

Rose McDermott

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
There are lots of ways that emotions have been studied in psychology and various ways that their use has been examined in the context of foreign policy. Perhaps one of the most useful ways ... More

Empires Versus States  

Josep M. Colomer

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
The classical analytical category of “empire,” as opposed to “state,” “city,” “federation,” and other political forms, can account for a large number of historical and current experiences, ... More

Empirical Analyses of Deterrence  

Stephen L. Quackenbush

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Deterrence is an important subject, and its study has spanned more than seven decades. Much research on deterrence has focused on a theoretical understanding of the subject. Particularly ... More

Empirical Evidence for Empirical International Relations Theorizing: Tests of Epistemological Assumptions With Data  

Brian C. Rathbun

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Balancing theory with evidence, in which we form and adjust our theories at least in part based on their performance, might seem to be a part of any social scientific enterprise. However, ... More

Empirical Knowledge on Foreign Military Intervention  

Jeffrey Pickering and David F. Mitchell

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
While the empirical literature on foreign military intervention has made considerable progress identifying the causes and consequences of military intervention, we still have much to learn ... More

Empirically Assessing the Bargaining Theory of War: Potential and Challenges  

Erik A. Gartzke and Paul Poast

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
What explains war? The so-called bargaining approach has evolved quickly in the past two decades, opening up important new possibilities and raising fundamental challenges to previous ... More

The Empirical Promise of Game Theory  

Alexandre Debs

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Game theory is a set of mathematical tools used to analyze the strategic interaction between decision makers. Proponents of game theory have offered different perspectives about its ... More

Empirics of Stable Peace  

Reşat Bayer

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Much of the empirical international relations research implicitly equates peace with the absence of war. Moreover, causes of war are seen as sufficient for understanding peace. Such an ... More

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