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European Union Enlargement Policy  

Eli Gateva

Enlargement has always been an essential part of the European integration. Each enlargement round has left its mark on the integration project. However, it was the expansion of the ... More

The European Union’s Community Method  

Youri Devuyst

Published Online:
May 2018
The Community method is intended to ensure that in the process of making, implementing, and enforcing European Union law and policy (a) the general European interest is safeguarded by the ... More

The European Union Space Policy  

Emmanuel Sigalas

The European Union Space Policy (EUSP) is one of the lesser known and, consequently, little understood policies of the European Union (EU). Although the EU added outer space as one of its ... More

The Eurozone Crises  

Kurt Hübner

Published Online:
Nov 2016
Even the most critical observers of the creation of the euro found some nice words on the occasion of its 10th anniversary. And yet it needed only a marginal event like the announcement of ... More

Evidence-Based Policy  

Linda Courtenay Botterill

Published Online:
Apr 2017
Since the late 1990s, increased attention has been given by governments and scholars to evidence-based policymaking (EBPM). The use of the term EBPM appears to have emerged with the ... More

Evolution, Adaptation, and Imitation in International Relations  

Richard Ned Lebow

Published Online:
Mar 2017
Evolution, as a biological process and a metaphor, has utility in our understanding of international relations. The former is largely inapplicable for obvious, conceptual, and empirical ... More

The Expansion of Economic Freedom and the Capitalist Peace  

Erich Weede

Published Online:
Dec 2016
On the one hand, the idea of a capitalist peace is a set of loosely integrated, but testable propositions. On the other hand it is part of a wider, libertarian philosophy of life. The ... More

Expectancy Theory and the Election of Judges: Do Judicial Campaigns Really Stink?  

Michael J. Nelson and James L. Gibson

Published Online:
Jan 2017
Even though most judges in the United States stand for election in the context of strong normative objections to the practice of electing judges, political scientists have produced a ... More

Experimental Research in African Politics  

George Kwaku Ofosu

Published Online:
Jun 2019
Political scientists are increasingly using experiments to study African politics. Experimental methods help scholars to overcome two central research challenges: potential bias in ... More

Experimentation in the Study of Religion and Politics  

Paul A. Djupe and Amy Erica Smith

Experiments in religion and politics model a communication system with three elements: who (the sample) is exposed to what (the treatment) and with what potential effect (the outcome). ... More


Benjamin Ferguson

Published Online:
Feb 2018
The concept of exploitation is often invoked in situations where relatively impoverished people are treated unfairly in economic and social contexts. While the claim that exploitation ... More

The Extended Scope of Accountability in Public Administration  

Richard Mulgan

Published Online:
Apr 2019
The accountability of governments to their citizens is usually framed within a relationship of principal and agent in which the government, as agent, is obliged to answer to the citizens ... More

Face Value: Facial Appearance and Assessments of Politicians  

Colleen M. Carpinella and Kerri L. Johnson

Published Online:
Aug 2016
The facial appearance of political candidates provides information to voters that can be vital to the impression-formation process. Traditionally, psychological research in the field of ... More

Federalism and Regional Politics in Africa  

Asnake Kefale

During the anticolonial struggle and immediately after independence, African political leaders were preoccupied with the creation of a “nation-state.” As a result, many of postcolonial ... More

Federalism as a Theory of Regional Integration  

Søren Dosenrode

Published Online:
Feb 2018
Federations have existed in a modern form since the constitution of the United States entered into force in 1789. Riker defines a federation as follows (1975, p. 101) “a political ... More

Feminism in Foreign Policy  

Kristen P. Williams

Published Online:
Sep 2017
The traditional/mainstream international relations (IR) study of foreign policy has primarily focused on state behavior in the international system, examining factors such as the influence ... More

Field Experiments on Political Behavior  

Peter John

Published Online:
Apr 2017
Field experiments allow researchers on political behavior to test causal relationships between mobilization and a range of outcomes, in particular, voter turnout. These studies have ... More

Fighting Abroad, Fighting at Home (and Vice Versa): Identifying the Relationship Between Civil and Interstate Conflict with Fewer Assumptions  

Michael Colaresi

Published Online:
Oct 2017
There has been increasing scholarly attention paid to the relationship between civil war and international disputes. Although this literature includes a rich set of theoretical ... More

The First Wave of Foreign Policy Analysis  

Valerie Hudson

Published Online:
Jul 2017
The first wave of the International Relations subfield of Foreign Policy Analysis occurred from 1954 to 1994, encompassing a founding period (the 1950s and 1960s) and a period of first ... More

Fiscal Politics  

Mark Hallerberg

Published Online:
Oct 2016
The topic of fiscal politics includes taxation and spending, budget balances and debt levels, and crises and the politics of austerity. The discussion often focuses on how some ... More