You are looking at  41-60 of 887 articles

View:

Audience Costs, News Media, and Foreign Policy  

Ross A. Miller

Online publication date:
May 2016
“Audience costs” represent situations where domestic audiences impose penalties on leaders for failed policies. This phenomenon has risen to a prominent position in the study of politics ... More

A Unified Analysis of the Diversionary and Constraint Accounts of Crisis Initiation  

Lisa J. Carlson and Raymond Dacey

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
The major empirical frameworks for understanding crisis initiation are the diversionary account and the constraint account. Both accounts deal with the influences that domestic audiences ... More

Austria and the European Union  

Paul Luif

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
Austria was occupied at the end of World War II by the four Allies, but in contrast to Germany the four powers left in 1955—the condition being its declaration of permanent neutrality, on ... More

Authenticity and Sustainability in Responsible Tourism  

Jane Carnaffan

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics. Please check back later for the full article. Tourism ... More

Authoritarian Turnover and Change in Comparative Perspective  

Jeremy Wallace

Most people in human history have lived under some kind of nondemocratic rule. Political scientists, on the other hand, have focused most efforts on democracies. The borders demarcating ... More

Authority, Authoritarianism, and Religion  

Ryan P. Burge

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
Since around the 1950s, hundreds of articles have been published in social science that are concerned with the concept of authority and authoritarianism and how both relate to religion. ... More

Autochthony, Belonging, and Xenophobia in Africa  

Peter Geschiere

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
The renewed relevance of “autochthony” and similar notions of belonging in many parts of Africa is symptomatic of the confusing changes on the continent since the “post-Cold War moment.” ... More

Autocracy  

Erica Frantz

Dictatorships have dominated global politics for hundreds of years, from the pharaohs of Egypt to the absolute monarchs of Europe. Though democracy has since spread to much of the world, ... More

Autocratic Regimes and Foreign Policy  

Marianne Kneuer

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
The foreign policy of autocratic regimes reflects the research interest in the international behavior and decision making of domestic actors in nondemocratic regimes. The regime type (its ... More

The Balance of Power in World Politics  

Randall L. Schweller

Online publication date:
May 2016
The balance of power—a notoriously slippery, murky, and protean term, endlessly debated and variously defined—is the core theory of international politics within the realist perspective. A ... More

The Baltic States in the European Union  

Tanel Kerikmäe, Archil Chochia, and Max Atallah

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Integration with the European Union has been far less distressing for the three Baltic States than for numerous other accessing countries owing to their strong societal impetus to (re)join ... More

The Banking Union in Europe  

Lucia Quaglia

The banking union is considered to be one of the main steps in economic integration in the European Union. Given the rather recent establishment of this policy, academic research on the ... More

Bargaining Models of War and the Stability of Peace in Post-Conflict Societies  

Margit Bussmann

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
A major challenge for countries that emerge from civil war is the stabilization of the post-conflict order in a way that fighting does not break out again. Recent empirical and theoretical ... More

Bargaining Theory, Civil War Outcomes, and War Recurrence: Assessing the Results of Empirical Tests of the Theory  

Caroline A. Hartzell

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Once ended, a significant number of civil wars recur. One influential empirical international relations theory on which scholars have drawn in an effort to provide an explanation for this ... More

Basic Income  

Simon Birnbaum

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
The idea that states should provide a means-tested guaranteed minimum income for citizens who are unable to meet their basic needs is widely shared and has been a central component in the ... More

Belgium and the European Union  

Edith Drieskens

Belgium is one of the six founding members of European integration, but it is often seen as a special one. In both policy and research, the country is widely known as the “heart of ... More

Beliefs and Foreign Policy Decision Making  

Mark Schafer and Gary Smith

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
How do the beliefs of leaders affect foreign policy decision-making processes and outcomes? This question has been central to the study of foreign policy decision making (FPDM), yet it ... More

Bolivia and the Challenges of a Plurinational Democracy  

Waltraud Queiser Morales

Bolivia is in the process of consolidating 36 years of democracy amid important reforms and challenges. Despite a history of colonialism, racist oppression of the indigenous majority, and ... More

Boko Haram and the Global War on Terror  

Abimbola O. Adesoji

Although the Boko Haram crisis started like other riots before it and was initially treated as such, its escalation and metamorphosis from ordinary religious protest to insurgency has ... More

Border Politics in Africa  

Paul Nugent

African borders, which mostly follow the contours of the former colonies, are widely regarded as artificial and yet have enjoyed remarkable longevity. On the one hand, there have been ... More

View: