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Applying, Enforcing, and Implementing European Union Rules  

Gerda Falkner

Online publication date:
Apr 2020
Making decisions is a complex and often problem-ridden process in a union of almost 30 member states. Most political science research hence discusses aspects of either decision-making or ... More

Approaches to Explaining Regional Conflict and Peace  

Kentaro Sakuwa

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
The pattern of international conflict and peace differs from region to region. Regions differ from each other not only in terms of the simple presence or absence of war but also the degree ... More

Archival Research in Foreign Policy  

Deborah Welch Larson

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Although more scholars have used archival evidence to analyze foreign policy in recent years, relatively little has been written on the methods involved in using archives as well as the ... More

Arctic Policy in the European Union  

Njord Wegge and Cristina-Elena Merticaru

Online publication date:
Oct 2019
The EU’s Arctic policy process represents and exemplifies a process of foreign-policy formation where forces from the Union’s internal dimension, involving tensions between member-state and ... More

A Revisionist Perspective on Framing Effects  

Jiawei Liu and Dietram A. Scheufele

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
There is a dichotomy in framing research that can be traced back to its multidisciplinary origins in psychology and sociology. Definitions of framing rooted in psychology are concerned with ... More

Argentina: The Journey From Military Intervention to Subordination  

David Pion-Berlin

Online publication date:
Mar 2020
Argentina has moved through two defining eras. The first was one of military coups and dictatorships that repeatedly interrupted democratic periods of governance. The second has been one of ... More

Arms Buildups and the Use of Military Force  

David F. Mitchell and Jeffrey Pickering

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
The empirical literature on arms buildups and the use of interstate military force has advanced considerably over the last half century. Research has largely confirmed that a relationship ... More

Arms Control and Arms Reductions in Foreign Policy  

Harald Mueller

Arms control is a strategy by governments to overcome the security dilemma with institutionalized cooperation. It comes in three versions, arms control proper, with stability as the main ... More

Arms Races: An Assessment of Conceptual and Theoretical Challenges  

Toby J. Rider

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
An “arms race” is a competition over the quality or quantity of military capabilities between states in the international system. The arms race phenomenon has received considerable ... More

Arrow’s Theorem  

Conal Duddy and Ashley Piggins

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
Kenneth Arrow’s “impossibility” theorem is rightly considered to be a landmark result in economic theory. It is a far-reaching result with implications not just for economics but for ... More

The Asia–Europe Meeting (ASEM)  

Lay Hwee Yeo

Online publication date:
Dec 2019
The Asia–Europe Meeting (ASEM) was launched in 1996 to provide a forum for East Asian and European Union (EU) leaders to meet and a platform to strengthen the links between Asia and Europe. ... More

Courts, the Law, and LGBT Rights in Asia  

Holning Lau

Online publication date:
May 2020
Courts have played an integral part in advancing the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities in many parts of Asia. Yet courts in other parts of Asia have ... More

A Somatic Marker Perspective of Political Decision Making  

Xavier Noël, Nematolla Jaafari, and Antoine Bechara

Online publication date:
Oct 2019
Decisions on matters affecting a group by a member of that group (e.g., decisions on a political choice) engage a mix of cognitive and emotion-based resources. Political decision-making ... More

Associative Memory and Political Decision Making  

Beth Vonnahme

Online publication date:
May 2019
Citizens are continuously inundated with political information. How do citizens process that information for use in decision-making? Political psychologists have generally thought of ... More

Asylum Policy and European Union Politics  

Ariadna Ripoll Servent and Natascha Zaun

Since the crisis of 2015/2016, asylum has become the focus of attention in the European Union (EU). The right to seek refuge raises issues of sovereignty and control of the territory; ... More

Attitudes Toward Homosexuality and LGBT People: Causal Attributions for Sexual Orientation  

Peter Hegarty

Social scientists have debated whether belief in a biological basis for sexual orientation engenders more positive attitudes toward gay men and lesbians. Belief in the biological theory has ... More

Attitudes Toward LGBT+ People and Policies: Political Tolerance and Egalitarianism  

Lauren Elliott-Dorans

Political tolerance and commitment to egalitarianism have long been examined as possible contributors to attitudes toward LGBT+ people and policies. Since the 1970s, American attitudes ... More

Attitudes Toward Women and the Influence of Gender on Political Decision Making  

Mary-Kate Lizotte

There is a great deal of research, spanning social psychology, sociology, and political science, on politically relevant attitudes toward women and the influence of gender on individual’s ... More

Audience Costs, News Media, and Foreign Policy  

Ross A. Miller

Online publication date:
May 2016
“Audience costs” represent situations where domestic audiences impose penalties on leaders for failed policies. This phenomenon has risen to a prominent position in the study of politics in ... More

Auditing and Accountability  

Jenny de Fine Licht

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
Auditing is frequently justified in terms of accountability. By virtue of their strong formal independence, supreme audit institutions (SAIs) are expected to scrutinize public spending and ... More

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