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The Structure and Performance of African Electoral Commissions  

Jørgen Elklit

Electoral commissions are organizations responsible for the conduct of elections and referendums. Their performance level is of paramount importance for the development of electoral ... More

Studying Political Decision Making With Automatic Text Analysis  

Wouter van Atteveldt, Kasper Welbers, and Mariken van der Velden

Analyzing political text can answer many pressing questions in political science, from understanding political ideology to mapping the effects of censorship in authoritarian states. This ... More

Sufficientarianism  

Robert Huseby

Published Online:
Jul 2019
Sufficientarianism is a principle of distributive justice according to which it is important that everyone has enough of some relevant form of advantage. Many, but not all, sufficientarian ... More

Suffrage Rights  

Humberto Llavador

Published Online:
Apr 2017
The historical evolution of the right to vote offers three observations. First, almost all groups have seen their voting rights challenged at some point in time, and almost all political ... More

Suicide Terrorism Theories  

Susanne Martin and Ami Pedahzur

Suicide terrorism has captured considerable attention since the attacks on September 11, 2001. Governments offered unprecedented support for scholars who were willing to research the ... More

Sunk Costs and Political Decision Making  

Charles A. Miller

The “sunk costs fallacy” is a popular import into political science from organizational psychology and behavioral economics. The fallacy is classically defined as a situation in which ... More

Support for Democracy  

Robert Mattes

Published Online:
Jun 2018
With the worldwide wave of democratization, scholars interested in the preservation of the new democracies dusted off old theories of regime maintenance. While commonly sharing the ... More

The Supreme Court Decision Making Process  

Timothy R. Johnson

Published Online:
Nov 2016
The U.S. Supreme Court is but one of three political institutions within the structure of the U.S. federal government. Within this system of separated powers it rules on the ... More

Surveys and Their Use in Understanding African Public Opinion  

Jeffrey Conroy-Krutz

Published Online:
Apr 2019
In the last two decades, there has been a significant increase in the number of public opinion surveys in Africa. While experts on economic development and health had long been collecting ... More

Sustaining the Peace After Civil War: What Do We Know About Peace Failure Versus Peace Duration?  

T. David Mason

Published Online:
Jun 2019
Once a civil war ends, there is high probability that the nation will relapse into renewed war within a few years. For a nation where a civil war has recently ended to relapse into renewed ... More

Sweden and the European Union  

Karl Magnus Johansson

Published Online:
May 2017
Membership in the European Union (EU) entails adjustments or changes in national democracies. Sweden joined the EU in 1995, and EU membership has given rise to controversies in the public ... More

Switzerland and European Integration  

Clive H. Church

Published Online:
May 2019
Despite its economic importance, Switzerland is surprisingly little studied. Hence it can be misunderstood. For many, it seems to have a successful relationship with the European Union ... More

Symbolic Politics as International Relations Theory  

Stuart J. Kaufman

Published Online:
May 2017
The symbolic politics theory of ethnic war starts from the insight that most political behavior is not rational but intuitive, driven by “symbolic predispositions” such as ideological ... More

Systemic Causes of Civil Wars  

Ann Hironaka

Published Online:
May 2017
Civil wars in the contemporary world are deeply interpenetrated by international influences. There are six different conceptions of the international system and their effects on civil ... More

Systemic Leadership, Energy Considerations, and the Leadership Long-Cycle Perspective  

William R. Thompson and Leila Zakhirova

Published Online:
Jul 2017
System leaders, sometimes referred to as hegemons or world powers, emerge based on a foundation of technological innovation and global military reach. To this foundation energy is now ... More

Taking China Seriously: Relationality, Tianxia, and the “Chinese School” of International Relations  

Salvatore Babones

China’s economic rise has been accompanied by the maturation and increasing professionalization of academic disciplines in China, including the discipline of international relations. The ... More

Taxation and Spending in Latin America  

David Doyle

Published Online:
Aug 2018
The battle over state redistribution, and the means to pay for welfare transfers, lies at the heart of contemporary political economy. This has been one of the central plinths of political ... More

Tax, Politics, and the Social Contract in Africa  

Wilson Prichard

Published Online:
May 2019
Though traditionally thought of as the preserve of technical experts—lawyers, economists and accountants—the study of taxation has recently attracted growing attention, with mounting ... More

Technocratic Government and Economic Policy  

Despina Alexiadou

The surge in the appointments of technocrats to the top economic portfolios of finance since the 2009 Great Recession, and even the formation of fully technocratic governments in Europe, ... More

The Territorial Peace: A Research Program  

Douglas M. Gibler

Published Online:
Jul 2017
The first argument that the democratic peace may, in fact, be the product of a larger, territorial peace among states was published in 2007. The argument was based on the strong findings ... More

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