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Transfer and Learning: Do They Go Together?  

David P. Dolowitz

Online publication date:
May 2017
While a phenomena dating back to antiquity, it wasn’t until the 1960s that American and European social scientists began seriously discussing occurrences in which it appeared as if ... More

Transgender and Nonbinary Gender Policy in the Public Sector  

Nicole M. Elias

Online publication date:
May 2019
Our understanding and treatment of gender in the United States has evolved significantly over the past four decades. Transgender individuals in the current U.S. context enjoy more rights ... More

Transgender Rights Interest Groups in the United States  

Anthony J. Nownes

Online publication date:
May 2019
Although the Trump Administration has been decidedly unfriendly to transgender Americans, there is no question that transgender people have made substantial policy, political, and societal ... More

Transgender-Specific Policy in Latin America  

Baird Campbell

The situation of trans rights in Latin America varies greatly by country and region despite a binding 2017 opinion from the Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACHR) clarifying member ... More

Transitional Justice During Armed Conflict  

Cyanne E. Loyle

Armed conflict is ultimately about the violent confrontation between two or more groups; however, there is a range of behaviors, both violent and nonviolent, pursued by governments and ... More

The Treaties of Rome  

Kiran Klaus Patel

Online publication date:
May 2019
Together with the Treaty of Paris (1951), which established the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), the two Treaties of Rome (1957) were the founding treaties of today’s European ... More

Trust and Social Relations in African Politics  

Dominic Burbidge

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Africa is a place of low social trust. This fact is significant for understanding the politics and economics of the region, whether for questions of national unity or economic coordination ... More

Twenty Years of de facto State Studies: Progress, Problems, and Prospects  

Scott Pegg

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
It has been almost 20 years since the publication of International Society and the De Facto State by Scott Pegg in 1998, the first book-length substantive theoretical attempt to ... More

The Two-Good Theory in Practice: From Abstract Generalization to Specific Inference  

T. Clifton Morgan and Glenn Palmer

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
The “two-good theory” is a theory of foreign policy that is meant to apply to all states in all situations; that is, it is general. The theory is simple and assumes that states pursue two ... More

240 Years of Foreign Policy Moods in a Democracy Which Grew Into a Superpower: What It Means for IR Theory  

Jack E. Holmes

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
In 1952, Frank L. Klingberg identified U.S. foreign policy moods since 1776 as alternating between an average of 21 years of introversion and 27 years of extroversion. The last extrovert ... More

Two-Level Games in Foreign Policy Analysis  

Eugénia da Conceição-Heldt and Patrick A. Mello

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Whether in multilateral negotiations or bilateral meetings, government leaders regularly engage in “two-level games” played simultaneously at the domestic and the international level. From ... More

Typology of Media Systems  

Daniel C. Hallin

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Typologies are a central tool of comparative analysis in the social sciences. Typologies identify common patterns in the relationships among elements of media systems and wider social ... More

Understanding Ethnic Conflict: Four Waves and Beyond  

Shiping Tang

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
The past four decades have witnessed an explosion of research into ethnic conflict. The overarching question addressed in the voluminous and still growing literature is this: Under what ... More

Understanding Government Behavior During Armed Conflict  

Cyanne E. Loyle

How and why do governments choose the strategies that they do during armed conflict? While there is a substantial body of research on the use of different tactics by governments and rebels ... More

Unipolarity: The Shaky Foundation of a Fashionable Concept  

James H. Lebovic

Online publication date:
May 2017
Since the Cold War’s end, academics and policy analysts alike have described the international system as unipolar. The term’s use appears well grounded. The United States possesses ... More

The United Nations and the European Union  

Carla Monteleone

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
The European Union (EU) and the United Nations (UN) are expressions of a rules-based global order. The EU has enshrined support to the UN in its security strategies, and its priorities ... More

Units, Markets, Relations, and Flow: Beyond Interacting Parts to Unfolding Wholes  

Naeem Inayatullah and David L. Blaney

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Heterodox work in Global Political Economy (GPE) finds its motive force in challenging the ontological atomism of International Political Economy (IPE) orthodoxy. Various strains of ... More

Use of Force in Foreign Policy  

Stephen L. Quackenbush and Thomas R. Guarrieri

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Foreign policy analysis has been used effectively to explain the use of force. Several leading approaches and paradigms help explain the use of force as a tool of foreign policy. These ... More

Using Experiments to Understand How Agency Influences Media Effects  

Kevin Arceneaux and Martin Johnson

Students of public opinion tend to focus on how exposure to political media, such as news coverage and political advertisements, influences the political choices that people make. However, ... More

Veto Player Approaches in Foreign Policy Analysis  

Kai Oppermann and Klaus Brummer

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
The main contribution of veto player approaches in Comparative Politics has been to the study of policy stability and change. Specifically, the argument is that the possibility and ... More

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