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Theories of International Norm Contestation: Structure and Outcomes  

Jeffrey S. Lantis

Published Online:
Jun 2017
First-generation constructivist theories argue that international norms are constitutive and regulative—that they shape state behaviors and promote international cooperation. Theories ... More

Theories of Interstate Peace  

Paul F. Diehl and Gary Goertz

Published Online:
Jul 2017
Few theoretical formulations are specifically devoted to accounting for peace, as opposed to war. Nevertheless, the occurrence of peace requires a different explanation than that for war. ... More

Theorizing the U.S. Supreme Court  

Charles M. Cameron and Lewis A. Kornhauser

Published Online:
Jan 2017
We summarize the formal theoretical literature on Supreme Court decision-making. We focus on two core questions: What does the Supreme Court of the United States do, and how can one model ... More

Theory and Evidence Regarding the Effectiveness of Human Rights Treaties  

Daniel W. Hill, Jr.

Published Online:
Sep 2017
The adoption by the United Nations of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948 marked the beginning of the modern international human rights regime. Since then the number of ... More

The Theory of Lateral Pressure: Highlights of Quantification and Empirical Analysis  

Nazli Choucri and Gaurav Agarwal

The term lateral pressure refers to any tendency (or propensity) of states, firms, and other entities to expand their activities and exert influence and control beyond their established ... More

Theory of Regional War and Peace  

Benjamin Miller

Published Online:
May 2017
The explanation of the variations in war and peace patterns across different regions, and transitions between war and peace in the same region, is based on the introduction of the ... More

Think Tanks and Foreign Policy  

Lars Brozus and Hanns W. Maull

Published Online:
Sep 2017
Foreign policy think tanks originated in the context of the Industrial Revolution and world wars in Western industrialized countries and then spread to all parts of the globe. In the ... More

To Arms, To Arms: What Do We Know About Arms Races?  

Richard J. Stoll

Published Online:
Sep 2017
Arms races are important phenomenon They can involve the commitment of vast amounts of resources that might otherwise be used to help societies. And arms races can be a cause of war, ... More

Toward an Evolutionary Theory of International Relations  

Rose McDermott and Christian Davenport

Published Online:
Jan 2017
The current practice of conceiving and examining international relations within the dogma of the existing dominant paradigm in international relations unnecessarily truncates our ... More

Trade and Culture  

Kerry A. Chase

Published Online:
Mar 2019
Government policies to protect and promote national culture are a perennial issue in the trading system. Controversy over trade and culture, in almost every instance, swirls around ... More

Trade Union Politics in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Nick Bernards

Although unionized workers have rarely represented more than a small minority of the population anywhere in sub-Saharan Africa, trade unions have played, and continue to play, a ... More

Trade Unions in South Africa  

Ari Sitas and Bianca Tame

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics. Please check back later for the full article. South ... More

Traditional Institutions of Governance in Africa  

Kidane Mengisteab

Published Online:
May 2019
Most African countries are characterized by parallel institutions, one representing the formal laws of the state and the other representing the traditional institutions that are adhered to ... More

Traditional Leaders and Development in Africa  

Lauren Honig

Traditional leaders have a significant role in the social, political, and economic lives of citizens in countries throughout Africa. They are defined as local elites who derive legitimacy ... More

Transfer and Learning: Do They Go Together?  

David P. Dolowitz

Published Online:
May 2017
While a phenomena dating back to antiquity, it wasn’t until the 1960s that American and European social scientists began seriously discussing occurrences in which it appeared as if ... More

Transgender and Nonbinary Gender Policy in the Public Sector  

Nicole M. Elias

Published Online:
May 2019
Our understanding and treatment of gender in the United States has evolved significantly over the past four decades. Transgender individuals in the current U.S. context enjoy more rights ... More

Transgender Rights Interest Groups in the United States  

Anthony J. Nownes

Published Online:
May 2019
Although the Trump Administration has been decidedly unfriendly to transgender Americans, there is no question that transgender people have made substantial policy, political, and societal ... More

Transgender-Specific Policy in Latin America  

Baird Campbell

The situation of trans rights in Latin America varies greatly by country and region despite a binding 2017 opinion from the Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACHR) clarifying member ... More

Transitional Justice During Armed Conflict  

Cyanne E. Loyle

Armed conflict is ultimately about the violent confrontation between two or more groups; however, there is a range of behaviors, both violent and nonviolent, pursued by governments and ... More

The Treaties of Rome  

Kiran Klaus Patel

Published Online:
May 2019
Together with the Treaty of Paris (1951), which established the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), the two Treaties of Rome (1957) were the founding treaties of today’s European ... More

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