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Trust and Social Relations in African Politics  

Dominic Burbidge

Africa is a place of low social trust. This fact is significant for understanding the politics and economics of the region, whether for questions of national unity or economic coordination ... More

Twenty Years of de facto State Studies: Progress, Problems, and Prospects  

Scott Pegg

Published Online:
Jul 2017
It has been almost 20 years since the publication of International Society and the De Facto State by Scott Pegg in 1998, the first book-length substantive theoretical attempt to ... More

The Two-Good Theory in Practice: From Abstract Generalization to Specific Inference  

T. Clifton Morgan and Glenn Palmer

Published Online:
Apr 2017
The “two-good theory” is a theory of foreign policy that is meant to apply to all states in all situations; that is, it is general. The theory is simple and assumes that states pursue two ... More

240 Years of Foreign Policy Moods in a Democracy Which Grew Into a Superpower: What It Means for IR Theory  

Jack E. Holmes

Published Online:
Aug 2017
In 1952, Frank L. Klingberg identified U.S. foreign policy moods since 1776 as alternating between an average of 21 years of introversion and 27 years of extroversion. The last extrovert ... More

Two-Level Games in Foreign Policy Analysis  

Eugénia da Conceição-Heldt and Patrick A. Mello

Published Online:
Jun 2017
Whether in multilateral negotiations or bilateral meetings, government leaders regularly engage in “two-level games” played simultaneously at the domestic and the international level. From ... More

Typology of Media Systems  

Daniel C. Hallin

Published Online:
Aug 2016
Typologies are a central tool of comparative analysis in the social sciences. Typologies identify common patterns in the relationships among elements of media systems and wider social ... More

Understanding Ethnic Conflict: Four Waves and Beyond  

Shiping Tang

Published Online:
Sep 2017
The past four decades have witnessed an explosion of research into ethnic conflict. The overarching question addressed in the voluminous and still growing literature is this: Under what ... More

Understanding Government Behavior During Armed Conflict  

Cyanne E. Loyle

How and why do governments choose the strategies that they do during armed conflict? While there is a substantial body of research on the use of different tactics by governments and rebels ... More

Unipolarity: The Shaky Foundation of a Fashionable Concept  

James H. Lebovic

Published Online:
May 2017
Since the Cold War’s end, academics and policy analysts alike have described the international system as unipolar. The term’s use appears well grounded. The United States possesses ... More

The United Nations and the European Union  

Carla Monteleone

Published Online:
Jun 2019
The European Union (EU) and the United Nations (UN) are expressions of a rules-based global order. The EU has enshrined support to the UN in its security strategies, and its priorities ... More

Units, Markets, Relations, and Flow: Beyond Interacting Parts to Unfolding Wholes  

Naeem Inayatullah and David L. Blaney

Published Online:
Apr 2018
Heterodox work in Global Political Economy (GPE) finds its motive force in challenging the ontological atomism of International Political Economy (IPE) orthodoxy. Various strains of ... More

Use of Force in Foreign Policy  

Stephen L. Quackenbush and Thomas R. Guarrieri

Published Online:
Jul 2017
Foreign policy analysis has been used effectively to explain the use of force. Several leading approaches and paradigms help explain the use of force as a tool of foreign policy. These ... More

Using Experiments to Understand How Agency Influences Media Effects  

Kevin Arceneaux and Martin Johnson

Students of public opinion tend to focus on how exposure to political media, such as news coverage and political advertisements, influences the political choices that people make. However, ... More

Veto Player Approaches in Foreign Policy Analysis  

Kai Oppermann and Klaus Brummer

Published Online:
Aug 2017
The main contribution of veto player approaches in Comparative Politics has been to the study of policy stability and change. Specifically, the argument is that the possibility and ... More

Vicissitudes of Emotions and Political Action During the Greek Crisis  

Bettina Davou

Published Online:
May 2017
Action readiness is considered a central property of emotions in most psychological theories. Emotions are the engine of behavior. They are the motivating, directing, prioritizing function ... More

Violence, Politics, and Gender  

Gabrielle S. Bardall

This article presents a conceptual orientation to the intersection of gender, politics, and violence. The first part of the article will introduce the subject by reviewing the primary ... More

Voter Information Processing and Political Decision Making  

Alessandro Nai

Contemporary political information processing and the subsequent decision-making mechanisms are suboptimal. Average voters usually have but vague notions of politics and cannot be said to ... More

Voting Advice Applications  

Diego Garzia and Stefan Marschall

Published Online:
Mar 2019
Voting Advice Applications (VAAs) are online tools that assist citizens with their voting decisions. They are offered to voters before elections in many countries and have experienced ... More

Voting Choice and Rational Choice  

Anthony McGann

Rational choice theory may seem like a separate theoretical approach with its own forbidding mathematics. However, the central assumptions of rational choice theory are very similar to ... More

War and Religion: The Iran−Iraq War  

Peyman Asadzade

Religion has historically played a central role in motivating rulers to start and individuals to participate in war. However, the decline of religion in international politics following ... More

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