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Voting Advice Applications  

Diego Garzia and Stefan Marschall

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Voting Advice Applications (VAAs) are online tools that assist citizens with their voting decisions. They are offered to voters before elections in many countries and have experienced ... More

Voting Choice and Rational Choice  

Anthony McGann

Rational choice theory may seem like a separate theoretical approach with its own forbidding mathematics. However, the central assumptions of rational choice theory are very similar to ... More

Voting in European Union Politics  

Monika Mühlböck

Together, the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of the European Union form the bicameral legislature of the European Union (EU). However, as the analysis of voting behavior shows, ... More

War and Religion: The Iran−Iraq War  

Peyman Asadzade

Religion has historically played a central role in motivating rulers to start and individuals to participate in war. However, the decline of religion in international politics following ... More

War and Religion: An Overview  

Jason Klocek and Ron E. Hassner

Although largely ignored by international relations scholars until the 21st century, religion has been and remains a pervasive social force both on and off the battlefield. It affects how ... More

War and Religion: The Yugoslav Wars of the 1990s  

Nikola Mirilovic

The breakup of Yugoslavia resulted in considerable violence and in the creation of new states. Religion is one of the factors that we need to consider in order to understand the Yugoslav ... More

War in Political Philosophy  

Helen Frowe

We can distinguish between three moral approaches to war: pacifism, realism, and just war theory. There are various theoretical approaches to war within the just war tradition. One of the ... More

War Making and the Building of State Capacity: Expanding the Bivariate Relationship  

Karen A. Rasler and William R. Thompson

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
A central cleavage in the war making-state making literature is between advocates of the notion that warfare has been the principal path to developing stronger states and critics who argue ... More

War Termination  

Carmela Lutmar and Lesley Terris

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
War termination is not a monocausal event but rather the product of a multitude of strategic, political, and psychological factors. Variables at different levels of analysis, such as power ... More

The Washington Consensus in Latin America  

Judith Teichman

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
Washington Consensus policies evolved over time, both in Washington and among Latin American policymakers. These policies, involving trade liberalization and privatization (among other ... More

Waves of Political Terrorism  

Jeffrey Kaplan

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
The wave theory refers to the “Four Waves of Modern Terrorism,” which was published in 2004 by David C. Rapoport, Professor Emeritus at the University of California Los Angeles and a ... More

Welfare Politics in Africa  

Jeremy Seekings

The emerging literature on the politics of social protection in Africa provides insights into the ways in which the unevenly changing character of representative democracy shapes processes ... More

Welfare State Research and Comparative Political Economy  

Silja Häusermann

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
Which risks are social and which are private? How much of their GDP do states spend on social welfare? Who exactly is entitled to which benefits? Is it still possible to finance an ... More

Western Balkans and the European Union  

Gentian Elezi

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
The European integration process of the Western Balkans has been experiencing considerable stagnation since 2010, although the regional states have been formally following the accession ... More

Western European Union (WEU)  

Maxime H. A. Larivé

Online publication date:
Jul 2019
This empirical and historical analysis of the Western European Union (WEU), an intergovernmental defense organization, contributes to the broader understanding of the construction and ... More

What Do We Know About Civil War Duration? A Bargaining Perspective  

David E. Cunningham

Online publication date:
May 2017
Civil wars vary greatly in duration—some end within months; others last for decades. What explains this variation? Civil wars drag on when no combatant can win a military victory and the ... More

What Do We Know About Global Financial Crises? Putting IPE and Economics in Conversation  

Michael J. Lee

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Since the 1970s, financial crises have been a consistent feature of the international economy, warranting study by economists and political scientists alike. Economists have made great ... More

What Helps Protect Human Rights: Human Rights Theory and Evidence  

Jessica Anderson and Amanda Murdie

Online publication date:
May 2017
Empirical international relations (IR) theory developed three generalized statements regarding why human rights abuses occur. First, human rights abuses are a way for an unrestrained ... More

What is Political Participation?  

Jan W. van Deth

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
Vibrant democracies are characterized by a continuous expansion of the available forms of participation. This expansion has confronted many researchers with the dilemma of using either a ... More

Women and Terrorism  

Mia Bloom

Women are playing an increasingly significant role in terrorism. As men are progressively targeted by security personnel, using female operatives provides terrorist organizations with a ... More

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