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Congress and Foreign Policy  

Bryan W. Marshall

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
The U.S. Congress has broad constitutional powers to shape foreign policy. However, Congress rarely shapes foreign policy as an equal partner with the president. Politics has the potential ... More

Constitutionalism  

Emily Zackin

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
The study of constitutionalism often begins with the question of what a constitution is. Sometimes the term refers to a single legal document with that name, but the term “constitution” ... More

Constitutional Law  

Axel Tschentscher

Research on constitutional law has come in different waves mirroring the development of states in recent decades. While the decolonization period of the 1960s still kept the old ties of ... More

The Constitutional Treaty and European Union Politics  

Derek Beach

Online publication date:
Sep 2019
The Constitutional Treaty, which attempted to establish a constitution for Europe, never went into force because of “no” votes in referendums in France and the Netherlands. It did not ... More

Constitution-Making in Comparative Perspective  

Gabriel L. Negretto

Constitution-making has been a central political activity in the modern era. Enacting a new constitution was an essential ingredient in the foundation of republics, the creation of new ... More

Constitutions and Constitutional Reforms in African Politics  

Muna Ndulo

Online publication date:
Jul 2019
Several African countries are currently engaged in the constitution-making process. In Africa, constitution-making usually takes three phases. The first phase took place at independence in ... More

Constructing a General Model Accounting for Interstate Rivalry Termination  

William R. Thompson

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Unlike many topics in international relations, a large number of models characterize interstate rivalry termination processes. But many of these models tend to focus on different parts of ... More

Constructivism  

Friedrich Kratochwil

Online publication date:
May 2017
Constructivism in the social sciences has known several ups and downs over the last decades. It was rather early successful in sociology but hotly contested in international relations. ... More

Constructivist Analyses of Foreign Policy  

David Houghton

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Most constructivist work in IR has attempted to account for very general outcomes in the international system, most notably the well-known research of Alexander Wendt. Whether we live in a ... More

The Content and Effect of Political Advertising in U.S. Campaigns  

Matthew P. Motta and Erika Franklin Fowler

Online publication date:
Dec 2016
Political advertising, especially negative advertising, is a prominent feature of contemporary political campaigns in the United States. Campaigns use advertising strategically to persuade ... More

Contextualism in Normative Political Theory  

Sune Lægaard

Online publication date:
Oct 2016
Contextualism denotes a set of ideas about the importance of attention to context. The topic of the article is contextualism in normative political theory/philosophy, in relation to the ... More

Controlling Bureaucratic Corruption  

Ting Gong and Sunny L. Yang

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
Corruption is a complex social phenomenon. It refers to the abuse of entrusted power for private gain, but it may still mean different things to different people. The definition of ... More

Corporate Lobbying in Foreign Policy  

Amy Skonieczny

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
More Americans than ever before believe that money in politics weakens our democracy. Public opinion polls show that the number of people who believe that the country is run by a few big ... More

Corruption in African Politics  

Tom Lodge

Survey evidence indicates that political corruption is more prevalent in Africa than in any other global region, though there is also evidence of considerable variation between countries ... More

The Council of Ministers of the European Union  

Jeffrey Lewis

Online publication date:
May 2017
The Council of Ministers, officially known as the Council of the European Union (EU), is a single legal composition of national ministers who meet in policy-specific formations to ... More

Counterfactuals and Foreign Policy Analysis  

Richard Ned Lebow

Counterfactuals seek to alter some feature or event of the pass and by means of a chain of causal logic show how the present might, or would, be different. Counterfactual inquiry—or ... More

Coup-Proofing and Civil War  

Jun Koga Sudduth

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Political leaders face threats to their power from within and outside the regime. Leaders can be removed via a coup d’état undertaken by militaries that are part of the state apparatus. At ... More

Courts and Rule of Law in Developing Countries  

Lisa Hilbink and Matthew C. Ingram

Online publication date:
May 2019
Under what conditions can courts be effective and the rule of law be meaningful in developing countries? A vast literature has emerged over the past several decades seeking to understand ... More

Courts and Social Policy  

Jeb Barnes

Online publication date:
Oct 2016
How do courts affect social policy? Answering this question is deceptively complex. Part of the challenge stems from the sheer scope of contemporary judicial policymaking, particularly in ... More

Courts in Latin American Politics  

Ezequiel Gonzalez-Ocantos

In the aftermath of the third wave of democratization, Latin American courts left behind decades of subservience, conservatism, and irrelevance to become central political players. They ... More

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