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Controlling Bureaucratic Corruption  

Ting Gong and Sunny L. Yang

Published Online:
Jun 2019
Corruption is a complex social phenomenon. It refers to the abuse of entrusted power for private gain, but it may still mean different things to different people. The definition of ... More

Corporate Lobbying in Foreign Policy  

Amy Skonieczny

Published Online:
Sep 2017
More Americans than ever before believe that money in politics weakens our democracy. Public opinion polls show that the number of people who believe that the country is run by a few big ... More

Corruption in African Politics  

Tom Lodge

Survey evidence indicates that political corruption is more prevalent in Africa than in any other global region, though there is also evidence of considerable variation between countries ... More

The Council of Ministers of the European Union  

Jeffrey Lewis

Published Online:
May 2017
The Council of Ministers, officially known as the Council of the European Union (EU), is a single legal composition of national ministers who meet in policy-specific formations to ... More

Counterfactuals and Foreign Policy Analysis  

Richard Ned Lebow

Counterfactuals seek to alter some feature or event of the pass and by means of a chain of causal logic show how the present might, or would, be different. Counterfactual inquiry—or ... More

Coup-Proofing and Civil War  

Jun Koga Sudduth

Published Online:
Aug 2016
Political leaders face threats to their power from within and outside the regime. Leaders can be removed via a coup d’état undertaken by militaries that are part of the state apparatus. At ... More

Courts and Rule of Law in Developing Countries  

Lisa Hilbink and Matthew C. Ingram

Published Online:
May 2019
Under what conditions can courts be effective and the rule of law be meaningful in developing countries? A vast literature has emerged over the past several decades seeking to understand ... More

Courts and Social Policy  

Jeb Barnes

How do courts affect social policy? Answering this question is deceptively complex. Part of the challenge stems from the sheer scope of contemporary judicial policymaking, particularly in ... More

Courts in Latin American Politics  

Ezequiel Gonzalez-Ocantos

In the aftermath of the third wave of democratization, Latin American courts left behind decades of subservience, conservatism, and irrelevance to become central political players. They ... More

Crisis Decision Making in Foreign Policy  

David Houghton

Published Online:
Sep 2017
Despite the frequency with which the term is used in the English language, there is relatively little agreement as to what constitutes a “crisis” in the study of foreign policy and ... More

Critical Theory: Self-Reflexive Theorizing and Struggles for Emancipation  

Fabian Freyenhagen

Published Online:
Sep 2018
Critical Theory is an umbrella term to denote those theorists who take up the task described by Karl Marx as the self-clarification of the age struggles and wishes of the age. ... More

Critiques of the Rational Actor Model and Foreign Policy Decision Making  

Chris Alden

Published Online:
Sep 2017
Foreign policy decision making has been and remains at the core of foreign policy analysis and its enduring contribution to international relations. The adoption of rationalist approaches ... More

Croatia and the European Union  

Pero Maldini

Croatia’s accession to the European Union (EU) meant, in political terms, the recognition of its political and normative-institutional achievements in the establishment of a nation state ... More

Cuba and Integration Processes in Latin America and the Caribbean  

Carlos Oliva Campos and Gary Prevost

Published Online:
Apr 2019
The uniting core of all the Cuban revolutionary government’s unfolding politics toward Latin American and Caribbean countries has been based on three foundational tenets: the staunch ... More

Cuba in an Age of Economic Reform  

Gary Prevost

Cuba in the second decade of the new millennium remains as interesting as ever, commanding a place on the world stage much greater than its small size would indicate. Fidel Castro passed ... More

Cultural Influences on Foreign Policy  

Huiyun Feng

Published Online:
Aug 2017
Scholars have heatedly debated whether and how culture impacts and shapes a state’s foreign and security policy in particular as well as international relations (IR) in general. The ... More

Cumulative Knowledge, Science, and the Emergence of International Relations  

Torbjørn L. Knutsen

Published Online:
Aug 2017
Statesmen, salesmen, soldiers, and scholars have discussed international relations for hundreds of years—at least since sovereign states consolidated their presence along the North ... More

The Czech Republic and the European Union  

Lenka Anna Rovná and Jan Rovny

Published Online:
Mar 2018
The collapse of communism in late 1989 released the Czechs to freely consider and shape the social and economic structures of their country. The diverse formulations of the contours that a ... More

Dead Ends and New Paths in the Study of Economic Voting  

Timothy Hellwig and Dani M. Marinova

Published Online:
Jan 2017
Connections between the economy and vote are commonly invoked to evaluate political accountability in representative democracies. A principal motivation for studying economic voting lies ... More

Decision Making Theories in Foreign Policy Analysis  

Alex Mintz and Amnon Sofrin

Published Online:
Oct 2017
Key theories of foreign policymaking include: the rational actor model, prospect theory, poliheuristic theory, cybernetic theory, bureaucratic politics, and organizational politics; and, ... More

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