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Democracy in the Crucible of Conflict  

Robert Ralston and Ronald R. Krebs

The field of international relations has long focused on understanding and explaining the causes of war. In contrast, scholars have devoted relatively little attention to war’s ... More

Democracy Promotion and US Foreign Policy  

David Ryan and Liam O'Brien

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Democracy promotion has been a key aspect of U.S. identity and foreign policy, though Washington also has a long history of supporting non-democratic forms of governance; it has both ... More

Democracy Promotion in Africa  

Oda van Cranenburgh

Democracy promotion in Africa became an increasingly important priority for Western donors in the late 1980s, with a growing normative consensus in support of democracy and human rights ... More

Democratic Backsliding in the European Union  

Nick Sitter and Elisabeth Bakke

Democratic backsliding in European Union (EU) member states is not only a policy challenge for the EU, but also a potential existential crisis. If the EU does too little to deal with ... More

The Democratic Dividend: Public Spending and Education Under Multipartyism  

Robin Harding

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
A substantial body of scholarship has considered the impact of regime types on public spending and basic service provision, much of which has implications for education. While some of the ... More

Democratic Domestic Institutions and Foreign Policy  

Eric Hamilton

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Scholarship on the relationship between domestic institutions and foreign policy is driven by the assumption that a state’s domestic political arrangement can explain important aspects of ... More

Democratic Norms and Religion  

Gizem Arikan and Pazit Ben-Nun Bloom

In research on religiosity and support for democratic norms, two major debates stand out: The first concerns whether some religious traditions, such as Islam or Orthodox Christianity, are ... More

Democratic Rollback in Africa  

Lise Rakner

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
There is a global trend of democratic retrenchment across the world, in both new and more established democracies. The African continent is part of the trend, although there are distinct ... More

Democratization and Conflict  

Ömer Faruk Örsün, Reşat Bayer, and Michael Bernhard

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Is democratization good for peace? The question of whether democratization results in violence has led to a spirited and productive debate in empirical conflict studies over the past two ... More

Denmark and the European Union  

Anders Wivel

Denmark’s relationship with the European Union (EU) takes its point of departure in the Danish self-perception of being a minor power with a superior societal model. This calls for both ... More

Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)  

Yi Feng

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Foreign direct investment (FDI) is a major component of globalization. Because of the important role it plays in economic growth and development, many scholars have directed their interest ... More

Development Trajectories in Africa  

Richard E. Mshomba

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Since independence, African states have been striving for economic development, but relatively few countries have achieved their goal. Between 1970 and 2016, real GDP per capita in ... More

Diasporas and the Transnationalization of African Politics  

Terrence Lyons

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
Political outcomes in Africa are increasingly shaped by ideas, actors, and processes that are transnational in character. Diasporas and transnational communities living in new host ... More

Differentiated Integration and European Union Politics  

Frank Schimmelfennig

Online publication date:
Aug 2019
Differentiated integration has become a core feature of the European Union. Whereas in uniform integration, all member states (and only member states) equally participate in all integrated ... More

Diffusion in International Politics  

Alex Braithwaite and Sangmi Jeong

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Diffusion with respect to international politics is commonly defined as the tendency for events or behaviors occurring in one spatial unit to influence the likelihood of similar events or ... More

Diplomacy and Negotiation by the Numbers: More Than An Art Form?  

Mark A. Boyer and Michael J. Butler

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
One of the long-standing debates between diplomatic historians and social scientists focusing on diplomacy and negotiation turns on what we know and how we know it. While diplomatic ... More

Diplomacy in Foreign Policy  

Kenneth Weisbrode

Diplomacy’s role in foreign policy is hampered by multiple understandings of what diplomacy is and does. A broad definition of diplomacy holds that it encompasses more than the promotion ... More

Direct Democracy and LGBT Politics  

Daniel C. Lewis

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
While many landmark policies affecting LGBT rights have been determined by legislatures and courts, voters have also often played a more direct role in LGBT politics through direct ... More

Discourse in Foreign Policy  

Charles G. Ripley

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Critical discourse analysis continues to remain a valuable method for understanding foreign policy. Situated in the broader interpretive methodological approach to the social sciences, it ... More

Discrimination  

Frej Klem Thomsen

Online publication date:
Jan 2017
The conceptualization and moral analysis of discrimination constitutes a burgeoning theoretical field, with a number of open problems and a rapidly developing literature. A central problem ... More

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