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The Advocacy Coalition Framework  

Paúl Cisneros

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics. Please check back later for the full article. Paul ... More

A Historical Perspective on Violence Against and Policing of LGBTQ Communities  

Courtenay W. Daum

Law enforcement has a lengthy history of policing LGBTQ communities. Throughout the 20th century, police utilized laws prohibiting same-sex sexual conduct to criminalize LGBTQ individuals, ... More

Arms Buildups and the Use of Military Force  

David F. Mitchell and Jeffrey Pickering

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
The empirical literature on arms buildups and the use of interstate military force has advanced considerably over the last half century. Research has largely confirmed that a relationship ... More

Bargaining Models of War and the Stability of Peace in Post-Conflict Societies  

Margit Bussmann

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
A major challenge for countries that emerge from civil war is the stabilization of the post-conflict order in a way that fighting does not break out again. Recent empirical and theoretical ... More

Bargaining Theory, Civil War Outcomes, and War Recurrence: Assessing the Results of Empirical Tests of the Theory  

Caroline A. Hartzell

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Once ended, a significant number of civil wars recur. One influential empirical international relations theory on which scholars have drawn in an effort to provide an explanation for this ... More

Bolivia and the Challenges of a Plurinational Democracy  

Waltraud Queiser Morales

Bolivia is in the process of consolidating 36 years of democracy amid important reforms and challenges. Despite a history of colonialism, racist oppression of the indigenous majority, and ... More

Boko Haram and the Global War on Terror  

Abimbola O. Adesoji

Although the Boko Haram crisis started like other riots before it and was initially treated as such, its escalation and metamorphosis from ordinary religious protest to insurgency has ... More

Border Politics in Africa  

Paul Nugent

African borders, which mostly follow the contours of the former colonies, are widely regarded as artificial and yet have enjoyed remarkable longevity. On the one hand, there have been ... More

Canada’s LGBT Movement  

David Rayside

The Canadian LGBT movement has had enormous success in gaining political and legal recognition for sexual minorities—as much as any of its sister movements in other countries. This is ... More

Capitalist Peace Theory: A Critical Appraisal  

Gerald Schneider

Capitalist peace theory (CPT) has gained considerable attention in international relations theory and the conflict literature. Its proponents maintain that a capitalist organization of an ... More

Catholic Church Advocacy in Latin America  

Christopher W. Hale

Historically, the Catholic Church in Latin America has supported conservative interests. It legitimized Spanish colonial rule and sided with traditionalist elites following Latin American ... More

Central Africa: Regional Politics and Dynamics  

Andreas Mehler

The variety in climate, vegetation, and population density in Central Africa is enormous, but some of the main features of policymaking and informal rules of politics—at first sight at ... More

Changing Patterns of Political Violence in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Kate M. Carter and Scott Straus

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Contrary to common assumption, major forms of large-scale organized political violence in sub-Saharan Africa have declined in frequency and intensity, and the region is not uniquely prone ... More

Citizenship Law as the Foundation for Political Participation in Africa  

Bronwen Manby

The question of membership and belonging is widely recognized to have been at the root of many political crises in Africa since independence. The legal frameworks for citizenship were ... More

Civilian Self-Protection and Civilian Targeting in Armed Conflicts: Who Protects Civilians?  

Betcy Jose and Peace A. Medie

Online publication date:
Dec 2016
Studies have shown that civilians are often intentionally targeted in civil wars and that civilian protection efforts launched by the international community have not always been ... More

Civil Strife, Politics, and Religion in Algeria  

Yahia H. Zoubir

The Islamist movement in Algeria and Islamist ideas (politicized/revivalist, Islamic reformism) date back to the colonial period. While Radical Islamist Groups (RIGs) and Salafi Jihadist ... More

Civil War and Religion: An Overview  

Isak Svensson

The relationship between civil war and religion is a complex one. Civil wars are influenced in many different ways by religiously based factors. Different religiously based factors ... More

Civil War and Religion: Salafi-Jihadist Groups  

Emil Aslan Souleimanov

Reflecting on the recent rise of Salafi groups and their impact on civil war, the academic literature on Salafi radicalization, mobilization, and recruitment has burgeoned in the recent ... More

Civil War and Religion: Turkey  

Gülay Türkmen

Out of the 111 armed conflicts that took place worldwide between 1989 and 2000, only seven were interstate conflicts. The others were intrastate in nature. As a result, the last decade and ... More

Civil War and Terrorism: A Call for Further Theory Building  

Charity Butcher

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Since the September 11 terrorist attacks on the United States, terrorism has gained increased prominence in both scholarship and the media. While international terrorist acts are quite ... More

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