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Advocacy Coalitions in Foreign Policy  

Jonathan Pierce and Katherine Hicks

Online publication date:
May 2017
The advocacy coalition framework (ACF) was developed to explain policy processes where contentious coalitions of actors seek to translate competing belief systems into public policy. ... More

African Agency in International Politics  

Jonathan Fisher

International Relations theory has tended to overlook the role of Africa and Africans in the international system. Traditionally, the discipline’s most influential theorists have focused ... More

The African Union: Successes and Failures  

Thomas Kwasi Tieku

The African Union (AU), an international organization comprising all 54 independent states in Africa and Western Sahara, was established in May 2001 to, among other things, promote ... More

The Aftermaths of Civil Conflicts  

Jaclyn M. Johnson and Clayton L. Thyne

Online publication date:
May 2017
The devastating Syrian civil war that began after the Arab Spring in 2011 has reminded the international community of the many consequences of civil war. However, this conflict is simply ... More

Agency and Structure in Foreign Policy Analysis  

Jarrod Hayes

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
For much of the history of the study of international relations, and of foreign policy as a distinctive subfield, scholars have debated the relative weight of agency and structure in ... More

Agent-Based Computational Modeling and International Relations Theory: Quo Vadis?  

Claudio Cioffi-Revilla

Agent-based computational modeling (ABM, for short) is a formal and supplementary methodological approach used in international relations (IR) theory and research, based on the general ABM ... More

The Age-Structural Theory of State Behavior  

Richard Cincotta

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Over the past three decades, economic and political demographers, using various measures, have discerned that increased age-structural maturity makes significant statistical contributions ... More

Agrarian Elites and Democracy in Latin America after the Third Wave  

Belén Fernández Milmanda

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
The historical role of landed elites as obstacles to democratic consolidation in Latin America has been widely studied. Four decades after the onset of the third wave, however, the issue ... More

Aid, Political Conditionality, and Other International Efforts to Support Democracy in Africa  

Christine Hackenesch

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Support for democracy, human rights, and good governance reforms in Africa has become a prominent objective in engagement by European Union (EU) institutions, EU member states, and the ... More

Akamatsu Waves  

Arno Tausch, Leonid Grinin, and Andrey Korotayev

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
In 1937, the Japanese economist Kaname Akamatsu discovered specific links between the rise and decline of the global peripheries. Akamatsu’s theory of development describes certain ... More

American Grand Strategy and Political Economy Theory  

Kevin Narizny

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Nearly everything a state does has distributional consequences, including grand strategy. Societal groups with different stakes in the international economy and defense spending often have ... More

American Pragmatism in Foreign Policy Analysis  

Ulrich Franke and Gunther Hellmann

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
This article examines scholarship in the field of foreign policy analysis inspired by the philosophy and social theory of American Pragmatism. Pragmatism is reconstructed as a unified ... More

Analogies and Metaphors and Foreign Policy Decision Making  

William Flanik

Online publication date:
May 2017
Like all decision making, foreign policy decision making (FPDM) requires transferring meaning from one representation to another. Since the end of the Cold War, students of FPDM have ... More

Analytical Liberalism, Neoclassical Realism, and the Need for Empirical Analyses  

Mark R. Brawley

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Two approaches currently enjoy widespread popularity among foreign policy analysts: Analytical Liberalism and Neoclassical Realism. On the surface, they seem remarkably similar. Both ... More

Approaches to Explaining Regional Conflict and Peace  

Kentaro Sakuwa

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
The pattern of international conflict and peace differs from region to region. Regions differ from each other not only in terms of the simple presence or absence of war but also the degree ... More

Archival Research in Foreign Policy  

Deborah Welch Larson

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Although more scholars have used archival evidence to analyze foreign policy in recent years, relatively little has been written on the methods involved in using archives as well as the ... More

Arms Buildups and the Use of Military Force  

David F. Mitchell and Jeffrey Pickering

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
The empirical literature on arms buildups and the use of interstate military force has advanced considerably over the last half century. Research has largely confirmed that a relationship ... More

Arms Control and Arms Reductions in Foreign Policy  

Harald Mueller

Arms control is a strategy by governments to overcome the security dilemma with institutionalized cooperation. It comes in three versions, arms control proper, with stability as the main ... More

Arms Races: An Assessment of Conceptual and Theoretical Challenges  

Toby J. Rider

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
An “arms race” is a competition over the quality or quantity of military capabilities between states in the international system. The arms race phenomenon has received considerable ... More

A Unified Analysis of the Diversionary and Constraint Accounts of Crisis Initiation  

Lisa J. Carlson and Raymond Dacey

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
The major empirical frameworks for understanding crisis initiation are the diversionary account and the constraint account. Both accounts deal with the influences that domestic audiences ... More

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