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Constitution-Making in Comparative Perspective  

Gabriel L. Negretto

Constitution-making has been a central political activity in the modern era. Enacting a new constitution was an essential ingredient in the foundation of republics, the creation of new ... More

Corruption in African Politics  

Tom Lodge

Survey evidence indicates that political corruption is more prevalent in Africa than in any other global region, though there is also evidence of considerable variation between countries in ... More

Counterfactuals and Foreign Policy Analysis  

Richard Ned Lebow

Counterfactuals seek to alter some feature or event of the pass and by means of a chain of causal logic show how the present might, or would, be different. Counterfactual inquiry—or control ... More

Croatia and the European Union  

Pero Maldini

Croatia’s accession to the European Union (EU) meant, in political terms, the recognition of its political and normative-institutional achievements in the establishment of a nation state ... More

Cuba in an Age of Economic Reform  

Gary Prevost

Cuba in the second decade of the new millennium remains as interesting as ever, commanding a place on the world stage much greater than its small size would indicate. Fidel Castro passed ... More

Cyprus and the European Union  

Stelios Stavridis and Charalambos Tsardanidis

The Republic of Cyprus (or Cyprus) joined the European Union (EU) in May 2004 and adopted the single currency (the euro) in 2008. This article consists of three parts: it begins with a ... More

Decolonial Queer Politics and LGBTI+ Activism in Romania and Turkey  

Bogdan Popa and Hakan Sandal

The role of a queer decolonial analytic is to put scholars of ethnic decoloniality in conversation with queer studies scholarship. In exploring not only the impact of the Ottoman Empire on ... More

Decolonizing the University in Africa  

Francis B. Nyamnjoh

Online publication date:
Jul 2019
Since the euphoria of independence in the 1960s and subsequent attempts at decolonization of university education through promotion of perspectives grounded in African realities and ... More

Democracy Promotion in Africa  

Oda van Cranenburgh

Democracy promotion in Africa became an increasingly important priority for Western donors in the late 1980s, with a growing normative consensus in support of democracy and human rights ... More

Denmark and the European Union  

Anders Wivel

Denmark’s relationship with the European Union (EU) takes its point of departure in the Danish self-perception of being a minor power with a superior societal model. This calls for both ... More

Diplomacy in Foreign Policy  

Kenneth Weisbrode

Diplomacy’s role in foreign policy is hampered by multiple understandings of what diplomacy is and does. A broad definition of diplomacy holds that it encompasses more than the promotion of ... More

Ecuador’s Social Movements, Electoral Politics, and Military Coups  

Marc Becker

Online publication date:
Jul 2019
In the 200 years since Ecuador gained independence from Spain in 1822, it has experienced many of the social problems that have plagued other Latin American countries. Ecuador experienced a ... More

El Salvador’s FMLN and the Constraints on Leftist Government  

Kevin A. Young

The 1992 Salvadoran peace accords ended a 12-year civil war and forced modest democratic reforms on a state long dominated by a ruthless oligarchy and military. However, the new system ... More

Emergencies and the Rule of Law  

Clement Fatovic

Online publication date:
May 2019
Despite scholarly disagreements over the meanings of both the rule of law and emergency, there is broad agreement that emergencies often invite and justify departures from the formal ... More

Environmentalism in Latin America  

Guillermo Castro H.

Online publication date:
Mar 2020
The environment is considered here as the product of the human interventions in natural systems through socially organized work processes. These processes also produce environmental ... More

Estonia and the European Union  

Tanel Kerikmäe, Holger Mölder, and Archil Chochia

Online publication date:
Nov 2019
Enlargement has been one of the European Union’s (EU) most successful foreign policies, but it has its limits: the EU cannot expand endlessly. The Treaty on European Union stipulates that ... More

The European Union, Latin America, and the Caribbean  

Susanne Gratius

Online publication date:
Jan 2020
Since 1957, the European Union (EU) has been a constant and reliable partner of Latin America, on the one hand, and the Caribbean, on the other. It still offers a unique model of idealist ... More

Evolution of Transgender Policies in the United States  

Emilia Lombardi

Online publication date:
Jan 2020
Within the United States, increasing numbers of transgender people are coming forward and working to change legislation to better protect their lives and identities. These changes have come ... More

Federalism and Regional Politics in Africa  

Asnake Kefale

Online publication date:
Jul 2019
During the anticolonial struggle and immediately after independence, African political leaders were preoccupied with the creation of a “nation-state.” As a result, many of postcolonial ... More

Foreign Policy and Religion: U.S. Foreign Policy Toward Israel  

Daniel G. Hummel

Religion has played a constant role in the United States–Israel relationship. Christian and Jewish interests have shaped U.S. foreign policy, especially after the rise of the Zionist ... More

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