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Competitive Framing in Political Decision Making  

Dennis Chong

Framing effects are produced by political communications that emphasize certain characteristics or consequences of an issue or policy to the exclusion of other features. By increasing the ... More

A Constructivist Approach to Online Political Information Processing  

Dan Cassino

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
Online processing, and the models arising from it, starts with an optimistic view of the American voter, in which it is supposed that the seeming ignorance of voters does not prevent them ... More

Counterfactuals and Foreign Policy Analysis  

Richard Ned Lebow

Counterfactuals seek to alter some feature or event of the pass and by means of a chain of causal logic show how the present might, or would, be different. Counterfactual inquiry—or control ... More

Democratic Norms and Religion  

Gizem Arikan and Pazit Ben-Nun Bloom

In research on religiosity and support for democratic norms, two major debates stand out: The first concerns whether some religious traditions, such as Islam or Orthodox Christianity, are ... More

Don't Expose Yourself: Discretionary Exposure to Political Information  

Gaurav Sood and Yphtach Lelkes

The news media have been disrupted. Broadcasting has given way to narrowcasting, editorial control to control by “friends” and personalization algorithms, and a few reputable producers to ... More

Dynamic Process Tracing Methods in the Study of Political Decision Making  

Philip Chen

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Understanding how individuals make political decisions in a complex and ever-changing world requires recognition of the dynamic nature of the environment, as well as theoretical and ... More

Emotions in Foreign Policy Decision Making  

Rose McDermott

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
There are lots of ways that emotions have been studied in psychology and various ways that their use has been examined in the context of foreign policy. Perhaps one of the most useful ways ... More

Emphasis Framing and Political Decision Making  

Thomas E. Nelson

Online publication date:
Oct 2019
Frames are distilled and coherent representations of complex social and political issues. A frame defines what an issue is about. Emphasis frames give special prominence to one aspect or ... More

Evolution and Political Decision Making  

Anthony C. Lopez

Online publication date:
Jan 2020
The application of evolutionary theories or models to explain political decision making is quickly maturing, fundamentally interdisciplinary, and irreducibly complex. This ... More

Expected Utility and Political Decision Making  

Jona Linde

Expected utility theory is widely used to formally model decisions in situations where outcomes are uncertain. As uncertainty is arguably commonplace in political decisions, being able to ... More

Face Value: Facial Appearance and Assessments of Politicians  

Colleen M. Carpinella and Kerri L. Johnson

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
The facial appearance of political candidates provides information to voters that can be vital to the impression-formation process. Traditionally, psychological research in the field of ... More

Foreign Policy Learning  

Guy Ziv

An improved understanding of foreign policy learning necessitates a clarification of what foreign policy learning is, who learns, and how such learning occurs. Cognitive and social ... More

Forgiveness and Ressentiment in the Age of Traumas  

Nicolas Demertzis

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Various therapeutic discourses on trauma claim that a successful working through of a traumatic experience amounts to forgiveness and the victim’s reconciliation with the past. Recently, ... More

Framing and Political Decision Making: An Overview  

Zoe Oxley

Online publication date:
May 2020
Political communicators have long used framing as a tactic to try to influence the opinions and political decisions of others. Frames capture an essence of a political issue or controversy, ... More

Framing Methodology: A Critical Review  

Dustin Carnahan, Qi Hao, and Xiaodi Yan

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
Since its emergence, framing has established itself as one of the most prominent areas of study within the political communication literature. Simply defined, frames are acts of ... More

Gender Stereotyping in Political Decision Making  

Nichole M. Bauer

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Women are under-represented at every level of elected office in the United States. As of 2018, women held just under 20% of seats in Congress, 25% of state legislative seats across the ... More

Hindsight Bias in Political Decision Making  

Rüdiger F. Pohl and Edgar Erdfelder

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
Hindsight bias describes the tendency of persons—after the outcome of an event is known—to overestimate their foresight. For example, following a political election, persons tend to ... More

How Motivation Influences Political Decision Making  

Brian J. Gaines and Benjamin R. Kantack

Although motivation undergirds virtually all aspects of political decision making, its influence is often unacknowledged, or taken for granted, in behavioral political science. Motivations ... More

Ideology and Values in Political Decision Making  

Christopher Weber

The study of ideology hinges upon several important characteristics. First, the term “ideology” may connote different things to voters. To some, it indicates a preference for “conservatism” ... More

The Impact and Conceptualization of Religious Identity Across Disciplinary Perspectives  

K. Amber Curtis and Laura R. Olson

Religion is among the most powerful forces in the world and therefore one of the most prominent sources of both individual and group identification. Because of this, scholars have spent ... More

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