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The Nice Treaty: Reforming European Union Institutions in Anticipation of Eastern Enlargements  

Finn Laursen

Online publication date:
May 2019
The Nice Treaty negotiated during the year 2000, signed in 2001 and in force from 2003, focused on institutional changes considered necessary, especially by the larger member states, for ... More

Nonbinary Trans Identities  

B. Lee Aultman

Nonbinary trans identities have historically referred to a range of gender non-normative embodiments and self-making practices that stand on the outside of, or sometimes in direct ... More

Non-Governmental Organizations: Bread for the World, Inc.  

Erica Ashbaugh and Gary A. Goreham

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
Bread for the World, Inc. is a 501(c)4 faith-based organization whose purpose is to advocate policymakers to end hunger and poverty. The organization began in the early 1970s, founded by ... More

Non-State Actors and Foreign Policy  

Frank A. Stengel and Rainer Baumann

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
The rise of non-state (international, private, and transnational) actors in global politics has far-reaching consequences for foreign policy theory and practice. In order to be able to ... More

Non-State Policing in Africa  

S.J. Cooper-Knock

Studies of policing go to the heart of debates over public authority, violence, and order. Across the globe, the state cannot be assumed to be at the center of policing practices or their ... More

North American and Australian LGBT Movement and Interest Groups  

Barry L. Tadlock and Christopher Glick

Online publication date:
May 2019
A study of the LGBT movement within Canada, the United States, Mexico, and Australia reveals the movement’s youth and vitality. Only since the mid-1900s has there been what one might ... More

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the European Union  

James Sperling and Mark Webber

Online publication date:
Jan 2020
Neither NATO nor the EU are full-spectrum security providers. They are complementary institutions with offsetting strengths and weaknesses. The EU, unlike NATO, has treaty-based ... More

Norway and the European Union  

John Erik Fossum

Online publication date:
Aug 2019
Norway has applied for membership of the European Union (EU) four times but is not a member. The two first applications were aborted because of de Gaulle’s veto against the U.K.’s ... More

Nothing About Us Without Us: The UN Convention on The Rights of Persons with Disabilities  

Paul Harpur

Online publication date:
May 2017
Persons with disabilities, the world’s largest minority group, have experienced oppression and have been excluded from participating in public affairs for most of human history. The United ... More

Nuclear Weapons and International Conflict: Theories and Empirical Evidence  

Daniel S. Geller

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
The balance of conventional military capabilities is intrinsic to understanding patterns of war among nations. However, cumulative knowledge relating to the effects of nuclear weapons ... More

Nuclear Weapons in Foreign Policy  

Molly Berkemeier and Matthew Fuhrmann

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
This essay reviews academic research on the role of nuclear weapons in foreign policy. It begins by discussing the “Theory of the Nuclear Revolution,” which holds that nuclear weapons ... More

Oil and the International Politics of the African State  

Cyril Obi

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
Recent discoveries of oil in some African countries have rekindled a debate about its place in development and international politics. The debate has pitched those viewing oil as a ... More

On the Paradox of State Religion and Religious Freedom  

Zachary Elkins

Online publication date:
Oct 2019
This essay explores the well-known tension between the commitment to a state religion and expressions of tolerance for other religions. The background question concerns the consequences of ... More

Ontological Security and Foreign Policy  

Jennifer Mitzen and Kyle Larson

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
In the early 21st century, a stream of international relations (IR) scholarship has emerged that interprets states’ foreign policy processes, decisions, and international outcomes through ... More

Open-Minded Cognition and Political Thought  

Victor Ottati and Chase Wilson

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Dogmatic or closed-minded cognition is directionally biased; a tendency to select, interpret, and elaborate upon information in a manner that reinforces the individual’s prior opinion or ... More

Opportunity and Willingness: From “Ordering Concepts” to an Analytical Perspective for the Study of Politics  

Harvey Starr

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
The opportunity/willingness framework (O/W) is presented as an agent-structure approach to the understanding of international relations (IR) and international conflict, with deep roots in ... More

The Ordinary Legislative Procedure  

Maja Kluger Dionigi and Anne Rasmussen

The ordinary legislative procedure (OLP), previously known as co-decision, has marked a significant milestone in the development of the European Union (EU) and transformed the way its ... More

Organization Theory and Public Administration  

Tom Christensen

Organizational theories can be classified into three types—structural, cultural, and mythical. The structural perspective is based in “bounded rationality” and focuses on how formal ... More

Organized Crime and Criminal Networks in Africa  

Mark Shaw and Tuesday Reitano

Online publication date:
May 2019
Organised crime and criminal networks are an outcome of Africa’s weak systems of state reach and governance, and in turn they further undermine effective state-building. Defining ... More

Organized Crime in Foreign Policy  

Niklas Swanström and Christina Wenngren

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Transnational organized crime is part and parcel of the modern, globalized economy. The black market has irrefutable influence over both economic and political structures. It corrodes, ... More