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Gender and Political Behavior  

Miki Caul Kittilson

Online publication date:
May 2016
The burgeoning field of gender and political behavior shows that the way in which ordinary citizens connect to the democratic process is gendered. Gender differences in voting behavior and ... More

Gender-Sensitive Parliaments  

Sonia Palmieri

While women have succeeded in promoting a feminist agenda in some parliaments, the international research shows that this is not always possible, and accordingly, not a realistic ... More

Gender Stereotyping in Political Decision Making  

Nichole M. Bauer

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Women are under-represented at every level of elected office in the United States. As of 2018, women held just under 20% of seats in Congress, 25% of state legislative seats across the ... More

Global Anti-LGBT Politics  

Barry D. Adam

Anti-LGBT politics around the world have undergone a major transformation over the last half century. While European powers once held themselves up as defenders of Christian morality and ... More

HIV/AIDS Politics and Policy in Europe  

Paul DeBell

HIV/AIDS in Europe highlights the centrality of politics at local, state, and international levels to the successes and failures in fighting transnational, global threats. Though several ... More

How Motivation Influences Political Decision Making  

Brian J. Gaines and Benjamin R. Kantack

Although motivation undergirds virtually all aspects of political decision making, its influence is often unacknowledged, or taken for granted, in behavioral political science. Motivations ... More

Ideology and Values in Political Decision Making  

Christopher Weber

The study of ideology hinges upon several important characteristics. First, the term “ideology” may connote different things to voters. To some, it indicates a preference for “conservatism” ... More

The Influence of Psychological Security Maintenance on Political Decision Making  

Joshua Hart

People are strongly motivated to maintain psychological security, or equanimity, which causes them to process and act on information in ways that are favorable to protecting against anxiety ... More

Interest Organizations and European Union Politics  

Justin Greenwood

Interest representation plays a systemic role in European Union (EU) policymaking and integration, recognized as such in the Treaty on European Union. Interest organizations supply ... More

Issue Voting: Modern and Classic Accounts  

Steven Weldon and Denver McNeney

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
Political scientists have long assumed that issues were at the heart of vote choice and a causal determinant of it—that is, citizens came to politics with clear issue preferences and they ... More

Laboratory Versus Field Experiments in Political Decision Making Research  

Aaron Hoffman

Online publication date:
Mar 2020
It can be difficult for political scientists and economists to know when to use laboratory experiments in their research programs. There are longstanding concerns in economics and political ... More

Leaderless Group Decisions  

Seong-Jae Min

Leaderless group decision-making denotes the idea that political decisions from a non-hierarchical discussion structure can be more legitimate and effective than those from a hierarchical ... More

Leaders and Foreign Policy: Surveying the Evidence  

Stephen Benedict Dyson and Thomas Briggs

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Political Science accounts of international politics downplay the role of political leaders, and a survey of major journals reveals that fewer than 3% of all articles focus on leaders. This ... More

Leadership and Change in the Public Sector  

Jose Luis Mendez

The nature and evolution of the field of studies of public sector leadership can be understood by focusing on four theoretical orientations: institutional, transformational, collaborative, ... More

Leadership in the European Union  

Lisbeth Aggestam and Markus Johansson

Leadership in the European Union is an empirical phenomenon that has increasingly come to attract scholarly attention. While a call for leadership in the EU is often heard, not least in ... More

Left-Right Orientations and Voting Behavior  

Willy Jou and Russell J. Dalton

Online publication date:
May 2017
One of the ways that citizens and elites orient themselves to politics is in reference to a Left-Right vocabulary. Left and Right, respectively, refer to a specific set of progressive and ... More

LGBT Candidates and Elected Officials in North America  

Joanna Everitt and Manon Tremblay

Online publication date:
Apr 2020
The representation of LGBTQ individuals has improved substantially in Canada, Mexico, and the United States in the past few decades; however, the numbers holding elected office are still ... More

LGBT People as a Relatively Politically Powerless Group  

Andrew Proctor

As a group engaged in struggles for representation and inclusion, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people have vied for access to social and political power. There is little ... More

Long and Short-term Memory Structure in Political Decision Making  

James Jaccard

Online publication date:
May 2020
Cognitive models of political behavior and political decision making have been a staple of research in political science for decades. Recent advances in cognitive psychology and behavioral ... More

Luhmann and Systems Theory  

Mathias Albert

The German sociologist Niklas Luhmann has provided one of the most elaborate theories of society available, as well as numerous works on specific aspects of society. Commonly labeled as ... More

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