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Regional Integration Theory  

Frank Schimmelfennig

Published Online:
Feb 2018
Regional integration theory seeks to explain the establishment and development of regional international organizations. Key questions are why and under which conditions states decide to ... More

Regional Politics and Powers: Hierarchy and Comparative Regional Analysis in International Relations  

Jon Patrick Rhamey, Jr. and Thomas J. Volgy

Published Online:
Sep 2017
Comparative regionalism constitutes a new frontier of international relations analysis that provides a more focused theoretical lens for understanding the localized phenomena dominant in ... More

Regions of War and Peace in Foreign Policy  

Alex Weisiger

Published Online:
May 2017
A significant, if minority, current in contemporary international relations scholarship places regions at the center of analysis. In practice, the shift to the regional level of analysis ... More

Religion and Political Conflict: “No Religious Affiliation” in the United States  

Kristi Winters

After years of exceptionally high levels of religious adherence and identity, the latter part of the 20th century saw the start of a trend: increasing numbers of Americans reported they ... More

Religion in Foreign Policy  

Jeffrey Haynes

Most states’ foreign policies are secular in orientation and focus. A few make religion a prominent component of their ideological approach to foreign policy. States whose foreign policies ... More

Religion in International Relations  

Tanya B. Schwarz and Cecelia Lynch

Published Online:
Nov 2016
Though religion was never absent from international relations, since the Iranian Revolution, the end of the Cold War, and the events of 9/11, the international community has taken a ... More

Religious Communication and Persuasion  

Benjamin R. Knoll and Cammie Jo Bolin

Religious communication affects political behavior through two primary channels: political messages coming from a religious source and religious messages coming from a political source. In ... More

Religious Communication and the Effects of Priming  

Gwyneth McClendon

Despite predictions that urbanization, economic development and globalization would lead to the recession of religion from public life, populations around the world continue to be highly ... More

Religious Establishment as a Subject of Political Science  

Michael Driessen

Recent scholarly attention to religious establishment can be understood as a response to the crisis of secularization theory and the apparent return of religion to global politics. As a ... More

Religious Frames: Falun Gong in China  

Junpeng Li

The crackdown on Falun Gong by the Chinese Communist Party demonstrates the unintended consequences of the deep penetration of politics into religious affairs in an authoritarian regime. ... More

Religious Frames: The Gülen Movement  

Etga Ugur

The Gülen movement is a transnational social movement with presence in more than 120 countries. The movement emerged out of Turkey’s informal Islamic sector in the 1960s and combined ... More

Religious Frames: U.S. Civil Rights Movement  

Dennis C. Dickerson

Religion provided an intellectual fulcrum, institutional support, and leadership to the U.S. civil rights movement. Whether through the eloquent and influential articulation of ... More

Religious Nationalism and Religious Influence  

Anna Grzymala-Busse

Religious nationalism, or the fusion of religious and national identities and goals, is an increasingly salient aspect of nationalism. Rather than secular nationalism simply replacing ... More

Religious Regulation: Discrimination Against Religious Minorities  

Jonathan Fox

The definition of the term “religious discrimination” is contested, but for the purposes of this discussion religious discrimination is defined as restrictions on the religious practices ... More

Religious Regulation in China  

Lawrence C. Reardon

Establishing a totalitarian state after 1949, Chinese Communist Party elites formulated religious regulations that ensured strong national security and guaranteed the Party’s hegemonic ... More

Religious Regulation in France  

Paul Christopher Manuel

Its past appears to be in constant tension with the present over the question of religious restriction. That tension might properly be understood as a centuries-long struggle between those ... More

Religious Regulation in India  

Kristina M. Teater and Laura Dudley Jenkins

Freedom of religion is a constitutional right in India, but this religiously diverse democracy regulates religion in several ways, including enforcing religious personal laws, regulating ... More

Religious Regulation in Iran  

Mehran Tamadonfar and Roman B. Lewis

Published Online:
Jun 2019
The history of religious minority politics and rights in Iran dates back to the early periods of the ancient Persian Empire. With the passage of time, expansion of the empire led to ... More

Religious Regulation in Muslim States  

Andrew Bramsen and Zoe Vermeer

Muslim majority states regulate religion at much higher levels on average than non-Muslim states. There are two main explanations for this. First, Muslim states are on average much less ... More

Religious Regulation in Poland  

Ewa A. Golebiowska and Silviya Gancheva

It is a truism to say that most Poles are Catholic. Yet, there is also a large number of other churches and religious organizations that are currently registered with the Polish state, ... More

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