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Terrorism as a Global Wave Phenomenon: Religious Wave  

David C. Rapoport

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Time gaps existed in the first three waves between precipitating political events and the development of terrorist activity. But now the time gap has disappeared because the precipitating ... More

The Foreign Policy Implications of Financial Crises  

Ronja Kempin

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
To what extent is the “Euro-crisis” a problem for the EU’s international standing and role? A conceptual framework has been developed based on the five distinct analytical categories: (a) ... More

The Foreign Relations of Subnational Governments  

Samuel Lucas McMillan

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Subnational governments are increasingly involved in foreign policy and foreign relations in activities usually labeled as paradiplomacy or constituent diplomacy. This phenomenon is due to ... More

Theoretical and Empirical Approaches to Uncertainty and Conflict in International Relations  

Muhammet A. Bas and Robert Schub

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Uncertainty is pervasive in international politics. This uncertainty can have many sources. Each source has different origins and implications for the likelihood of conflict. Existing ... More

Theoretical Diversity in International Relations: Dominance, Pluralism, and Division  

Thomas C. Walker

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
The question of theoretical dominance has been the source of longstanding debates in the field of International Relations (IR). The folklore of the field tells of how realism fell from ... More

Theoretical Perspectives on Subnational Public Policy and LGBT Law  

Jason Pierceson

Subnational policymaking is central to LGBT politics and law, in contrast to other arenas of policymaking for marginalized groups. With barriers to national policymaking in Congress and in ... More

Theoretical Underpinnings of a Global Social Contract  

Takashi Inoguchi

Online publication date:
May 2017
In modeling a global social contract, theoretical underpinnings are provided, drawing from Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s The Social Contract and John Locke’s Two Treatises of Government. The ... More

Theories of Civil War Onset: Promises and Pitfalls  

Adrian Florea

Online publication date:
May 2017
Empirical research on civil war onset has been largely dominated by two approaches: a correlational or “correlates of civil war” approach which seeks to identify country-level ... More

Theories of International Norm Contestation: Structure and Outcomes  

Jeffrey S. Lantis

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
First-generation constructivist theories argue that international norms are constitutive and regulative—that they shape state behaviors and promote international cooperation. Theories ... More

Theories of Interstate Peace  

Paul F. Diehl and Gary Goertz

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Few theoretical formulations are specifically devoted to accounting for peace, as opposed to war. Nevertheless, the occurrence of peace requires a different explanation than that for war. ... More

Theorizing the U.S. Supreme Court  

Charles M. Cameron and Lewis A. Kornhauser

Online publication date:
Jan 2017
We summarize the formal theoretical literature on Supreme Court decision-making. We focus on two core questions: What does the Supreme Court of the United States do, and how can one model ... More

Theory and Evidence Regarding the Effectiveness of Human Rights Treaties  

Daniel W. Hill, Jr.

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
The adoption by the United Nations of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948 marked the beginning of the modern international human rights regime. Since then the number of ... More

The Theory of Lateral Pressure: Highlights of Quantification and Empirical Analysis  

Nazli Choucri and Gaurav Agarwal

The term lateral pressure refers to any tendency (or propensity) of states, firms, and other entities to expand their activities and exert influence and control beyond their established ... More

Theory of Regional War and Peace  

Benjamin Miller

Online publication date:
May 2017
The explanation of the variations in war and peace patterns across different regions, and transitions between war and peace in the same region, is based on the introduction of the ... More

Think Tanks and Foreign Policy  

Lars Brozus and Hanns W. Maull

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Foreign policy think tanks originated in the context of the Industrial Revolution and world wars in Western industrialized countries and then spread to all parts of the globe. In the ... More

To Arms, To Arms: What Do We Know About Arms Races?  

Richard J. Stoll

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Arms races are important phenomenon They can involve the commitment of vast amounts of resources that might otherwise be used to help societies. And arms races can be a cause of war, ... More

Toward an Evolutionary Theory of International Relations  

Rose McDermott and Christian Davenport

Online publication date:
Jan 2017
The current practice of conceiving and examining international relations within the dogma of the existing dominant paradigm in international relations unnecessarily truncates our ... More

Trade and Culture  

Kerry A. Chase

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Government policies to protect and promote national culture are a perennial issue in the trading system. Controversy over trade and culture, in almost every instance, swirls around ... More

Trade Union Politics in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Nick Bernards

Although unionized workers have rarely represented more than a small minority of the population anywhere in sub-Saharan Africa, trade unions have played, and continue to play, a ... More

Trade Unions in South Africa  

Ari Sitas and Bianca Tame

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics. Please check back later for the full article. South ... More

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