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Secularism and Religion  

Steven Kettell

The boundary between the religious and the secular spheres of life is contested in many parts of the world. From the latter decades of the 20th century, controversies over issues such as ... More

Secularization, Secularity, and Secularism in the New Millennium: Macro-theories and Research  

Jörg Stolz and Pascal Tanner

In the second half of the 20th century, theories on secularization and secularism have been dominated by three approaches: secularization theory, individualization theory, and market ... More

Securitization Theory and Foreign Policy Analysis  

Roxanna Sjöstedt

Published Online:
Apr 2017
Since it was launched in the mid-1990s, the concept of securitization has consistently been in vogue, at least among European scholars of world politics and security studies. The idea of ... More

The Selectorate Theory and International Politics  

Randolph M. Siverson and Bruce Bueno de Mesquita

Published Online:
Jun 2017
The Selectorate Theory is based upon one simple, perhaps even commonplace assumption: Once in office, leaders want to remain in office. They have a variety of tools to enhance their ... More

The Separation of Powers in African Constitutionalism  

Charles Manga Fombad

Published Online:
Mar 2019
One reason why dictatorships flourished in Africa until the 1990s was that constitutions concentrated excessive powers in presidents. The democratic revival of the 1990s led to the ... More

Sequences in Foreign Policy Decision Making  

Binnur Ozkececi-Taner

Published Online:
May 2017
Discussion of some representative work from the scholars of foreign policy provides a review of the literature that can guide researchers in examining the separate yet interrelated stages ... More

Serbia and the European Union  

Matteo Bonomi and Milica Uvalic

Serbia is negotiating European Union (EU) membership, a process that started in 2014 after the Brussels-mediated agreement between Kosovo and Serbia was signed in April 2013. Although the ... More

Sex Reclassification for Trans and Gender Nonconforming People: From the Medicalized Body to the Privatized Self  

Ido Katri

Sex reclassification is a core issue of gender nonconforming legal engagements. Access to proper identification documents for trans and nonbinary people relates to lower levels of exposure ... More

Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, and Political Decision Making  

Ewa A. Golebiowska

Public opinion on LGBT Americans’ rights has become more supportive of equal treatment over time. The movement toward greater egalitarianism has been particularly pronounced on attitudes ... More

Signaling in Foreign Policy  

Erik A. Gartzke, Shannon Carcelli, J Andres Gannon, and Jiakun Jack Zhang

Published Online:
Aug 2017
Costly signaling offers a solution to many foreign policy dilemmas. Though most commonly studied in the context of the bargaining theory of war, signaling can also play an important role ... More

Simulation and ABM in Foreign Policy  

Ravi Bhavnani and David Sylvan

Published Online:
Sep 2017
On several occasions in the past 70 years, simulation as a research program in FPA rose, then fell. We begin by defining what we mean by simulations before reviewing the two main streams ... More

Slovenia and the European Union  

Ana Bojinović Fenko and Marjan Svetličič

Despite having fought for their bare survival against hostile foreigners, after finally reaching their independence and international recognition in 1991/92, paradoxically, even before ... More

Slum Politics in Africa  

Jacqueline M. Klopp and Jeffrey W. Paller

Published Online:
May 2019
Africa’s growing slums are complex, diverse neighborhoods with their own histories. Currently, these places, characterized by spatially concentrated poverty and human rights abuses, are ... More

Small State Foreign Policy  

Baldur Thorhallsson and Sverrir Steinsson

Published Online:
May 2017
Size matters in international relations. Owing to their unique vulnerabilities, small states have different needs, adopt different foreign policies, and have a harder time achieving ... More

Small States in the European Union  

Diana Panke and Julia Gurol

Smaller European Union member states face size-related challenges in the EU multilevel system, such as weighted voting in day-to-day policymaking in which EU secondary law is produced or ... More

Social and Political Power  

Keith Dowding

Published Online:
Mar 2017
Power is a complex topic that is viewed in entirely different ways by different writers. Power can be seen as a property of agents, with some agents having more power than others. It can ... More

Social Capital and Democracy in Africa  

Richard Asante

Social capital is a slippery concept that signifies different things for different authors, and its uses are not always consistent. Despite this lack of consensus, most scholars agree on ... More

Social Identity Theory: Status and Identity in International Relations  

Deborah Welch Larson

Published Online:
May 2017
Social identity theory (SIT) from social psychology provides a means to explore the influence of identity and status concerns on foreign policy. The theory argues that groups are motivated ... More

Social Media and Elections in Africa  

Iginio Gagliardone

The analysis of the diffusion of social media in Africa and its relevance for politics has been caught in a paradox. On the one hand, social media have been saluted for their newness and ... More

Social Media and Foreign Policy  

Trevor Rubenzer

Published Online:
Aug 2017
Social media refer to websites and other Internet applications that enable users to create and share content with other users, as well as to react to such content in various ways. As ... More

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