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Queer Intersectionalities in Politics  

Marla Brettschneider

Online publication date:
Sep 2019
Both the terms queer and intersectionality emerged in the United States during late 1980s. The queer world has particularly contributed to political thinking and activism in regard to sex, ... More

Race, Ethnicity, and Political Behavior  

Aida Just

Online publication date:
Jan 2017
Whether as a consequence of colonialism or more recent international migration, ethnic diversity has become a prominent feature of many contemporary democracies. Given the importance of ... More

Racial Prejudice, Racial Identity, and Attitudes in Political Decision Making  

Ashley Jardina and Spencer Piston

A great deal of work in the domain of race and politics has focused on two phenomena: racial prejudice and racial solidarity. Scholarship on racial prejudice has primarily examined the ... More

Racial Priming with Implicit and Explicit Messages  

Michael Tesler

Online publication date:
May 2017
An expansive body of research known as racial priming consistently shows that media and campaign content can make racial attitudes more important factors in Americans’ political ... More

Racial Stereotyping in Political Decision Making  

Ray Block Jr.

Online publication date:
May 2019
Simply defined, stereotypes are commonly-held beliefs about groups of people. Racial stereotypes are the widely shared perceptions that people have about certain social groups and the ... More

Radio as a Political Medium in Africa  

Harri Englund

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Radio’s affordability, portability, and use of local languages have long granted it a special status among mass media in Africa. Its development across the continent has followed ... More

The “Rally-'Round-the-Flag” Phenomenon and the Diversionary Use of Force  

Shoon Murray

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
The observation that groups unify in the face of common threats is long-standing. At the level of the nation-state, this is called the “rally-'round-the-flag” phenomenon. In the case of ... More

Rational Choice Institutionalism and European Integration  

Gerald Schneider and Anastasia Ershova

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Rational choice institutionalism (RCI) conceives of European integration as the outcome of three interplaying forces—interests, information, and institutions. Cooperation in the European ... More

Realism in Foreign Policy Analysis  

Anders Wivel

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Realists explain foreign policy in terms of power politics. They disagree on the exact meaning of power and on how and to what extent politics is likely to influence policy. But they all ... More

Real-Time Responses to Campaign Communication  

Marcus Maurer

Online publication date:
May 2016
Real-time response measurement (RTR), sometimes also called continuous response measurement (CRM), is a computerized survey tool that continuously measures short-time perceptions while ... More

Reconceptualizing Field Research in Political Science  

Diana Kapiszewski, Lauren M. MacLean, and Benjamin L. Read

Generations of political scientists have set out for destinations near and far to pursue field research. Even in a digitally networked era, the researcher’s personal presence and ... More

Reconsidering African Elections  

Carolien van Ham and Staffan Lindberg

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
The quality of elections in Africa demonstrates considerable progress from the early attempts in the 1950s and 1960s to the increasingly democratic era following the end of the Cold War. ... More

Rediscovering Reputation Through Theory and Evidence  

Mark J. C. Crescenzi and Bailee Donahue

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Reputation as it applies to the arena of international relations is information adhering to a state or its leaders about behavioral or intentional characteristics relating to cooperation ... More

Referendums  

Matthew Qvortrup

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Referendums in the European Union  

Derek Beach

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Referendums are frequently used to ratify European Union (EU)–related propositions. Since 1972 there have been in total 46 EU-related referendums, excluding third-country referendums on ... More

Regime Type and Foreign Direct Investment: A Transaction Cost Economics Approach to the Debate  

Austin P. Johnson and Quan Li

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
A debate exists in international political economy on the relationship between regime type and foreign direct investment (FDI). The central point of contention focuses on whether ... More

Regional Integration Theory  

Frank Schimmelfennig

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Regional integration theory seeks to explain the establishment and development of regional international organizations. Key questions are why and under which conditions states decide to ... More

Regional Politics and Powers: Hierarchy and Comparative Regional Analysis in International Relations  

Jon Patrick Rhamey, Jr. and Thomas J. Volgy

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Comparative regionalism constitutes a new frontier of international relations analysis that provides a more focused theoretical lens for understanding the localized phenomena dominant in ... More

Regions of War and Peace in Foreign Policy  

Alex Weisiger

Online publication date:
May 2017
A significant, if minority, current in contemporary international relations scholarship places regions at the center of analysis. In practice, the shift to the regional level of analysis ... More

Religion and Political Conflict: “No Religious Affiliation” in the United States  

Kristi Winters

After years of exceptionally high levels of religious adherence and identity, the latter part of the 20th century saw the start of a trend: increasing numbers of Americans reported they ... More

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