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Social Structure and Voting Choice  

Oddbjørn Knutsen

The linkage between voters and political parties is to some degree based on stable social cleavages. Such cleavages express important and lasting societal divisions, allow parties and ... More

Sociological Institutionalism and European Integration  

Sabine Saurugger

Published Online:
May 2017
Sociological institutionalism is part of the larger group of new institutionalisms, which share the basic understanding that institutions matter in social processes. Opposing a more ... More

Soft Balancing  

Huiyun Feng and Kai He

Published Online:
Jun 2017
Soft balancing is a conceptual product of one of the academic debates triggered by unipolarity in world politics. Examination of the soft balancing debate from 2005 to 2016 and critical ... More

Solidarity and European Union Politics  

Andreas Grimmel

Solidarity is one of most contentious and contested concepts in European Union (EU) politics. At the same time, it was, and remains, a central value of European integration that has been ... More

The Somatic Marker Hypothesis and Political Life  

Marco Verweij and Antonio Damasio

Published Online:
May 2019
The somatic marker hypothesis has not always been fully understood, or properly applied, in political science. The hypothesis was developed to explain the personally and socially harmful ... More

Southern Africa: Regional Politics and Dynamics  

Stephen Chan

Published Online:
Feb 2019
Southern Africa is a region marked by huge tensions caused by the longevity of colonial rule and racial discrimination. Angola, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, and South Africa all achieved ... More

Sovereignty as a Resource and Curse in Africa  

Pierre Englebert

The sovereignty of postcolonial African states is largely derived from their recognition by other states and by the United Nations, irrespective of their actual effectiveness. Such ... More

Space, Mobility and Legitimacy  

Ettore Recchi

While migration has always existed, and its consequences have always been important, few people have lived a mobile life in the history of mankind. Population immobility has recurrently ... More

Special Relationships in Foreign Policy  

Sebastian Harnisch

Published Online:
Jul 2017
Special relationships are durable and exclusive bilateral relations between autonomous polities that are based on mutual expectations of preferential treatment by its members and outsiders ... More

Sport and Politics in Africa  

Michelle Sikes

Published Online:
Apr 2019
African politics have always had a significant effect on sport, despite cherished mantras that sport and politics are mutually exclusive. Conversely, sport has played a meaningful role in ... More

The Spread of Conflict in International Relations  

Nils W. Metternich

International relations as a subfield in political science has always been fundamentally concerned about the relations between actors and how they lead to conflictual or cooperative ... More

State Leaders and Foreign Policy  

Jeff Carter and Giacomo Chiozza

Published Online:
Sep 2017
What choices do political leaders make in the international arena? And why? In what ways do the patterns of politics in the international arena shape the selection and prospects of leaders ... More

The State of Hezbollah? Sovereignty as a Potentiality in Global South Contexts  

Imad Mansour

The understanding of the differences in what a state and nonstate actors are and do in the Global South is augmented if we historicize these categories. In particular, the category of the ... More

States and Nonstate Armed Groups (NAGs) in International Relations Theory  

Belgin San-Akca

Published Online:
Aug 2017
The international arena has been plagued with violence committed by a variety of Nonstate Armed Groups (NAGs), including ethnic and religious insurgents, terrorists, and revolutionaries, ... More

The Steps to War: Theory and Evidence  

Andrew P. Owsiak

The steps-to-war theory maintains that war results from the issues under dispute and how states handle these issues. Its foundation rests on the territorial explanation of war, which ... More

Stereotype Measurement in Political Decision Making  

Angela L. Bos, Heather Madonia, and Monica C. Schneider

Stereotypes are a set of beliefs a person holds about the personal attributes of a group of people. The beliefs are commonly held and understood, which allows people to use them as ... More

Stereotyping and Political Decision Making  

Bettina Spencer

Published Online:
Jun 2019
Stereotypes are overgeneralized, often inaccurate, characterizations of a group and its members. Because stereotypes rely on heuristics, they can occur unconsciously and shape behavior in ... More

Strategic Culture Theory: What, Why, and How  

Edward Lock

Published Online:
Sep 2017
The concept of strategic culture has become widely used in the field of international relations, primarily in the context of efforts to explain the distinctive strategic behaviors of ... More

The Strategic Use of State Repression and Political Violence  

Jacqueline H. R. deMeritt

Published Online:
Oct 2016
Repression is the act of subduing someone by institutional or physical force. Political violence is a particular form of repression involving the use of physical force to achieve political ... More

Strategic Violence Among Religious Parties in Pakistan  

Niloufer Siddiqui

Islamist parties in Pakistan are theologically diverse but grouped as such because of their belief in the state enforcement of religious law (shariah). While they have only achieved modest ... More

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