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Q Methodology in Research on Political Decision Making  

Steven R. Brown

Q methodology was introduced in 1935 and has evolved to become the most elaborate philosophical, conceptual, and technical means for the systematic study of subjectivity across an ... More

Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) and Set Theory  

Claudius Wagemann

Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) is a method, developed by the American social scientist Charles C. Ragin since the 1980s, which has had since then great and ever-increasing success ... More

Quantitative Methods and Feminist Political Science  

Katelyn E. Stauffer and Diana Z. O'Brien

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
Quantitative methods are among the most useful, but also historically contentious, tools in feminist research. Despite the controversy that sometimes surrounds these methods, feminist ... More

Quantitative Methods in Foreign Policy  

Micah Dillard and Jon C.W. Pevehouse

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Scholarship in international relations has taken a more quantitative turn in the past four decades. The field of foreign policy analysis was arguably the forerunner in the development and ... More

Queer Activism in Africa  

Ellie Gore

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
From Pride marches in Entebbe to legal battles in Lilongwe, the struggle for queer liberation in Africa has intensified over the past two decades. This has given rise to diverse formations ... More

Queer International Relations  

Melanie Richter-Montpetit and Cynthia Weber

Queer International Relations (IR) is not a new field. For more than 20 years, Queer IR scholarship has focused on how normativities and/or non-normativities associated with categories of ... More

Queer Intersectionalities in Politics  

Marla Brettschneider

Online publication date:
Sep 2019
Both the terms queer and intersectionality emerged in the United States during late 1980s. The queer world has particularly contributed to political thinking and activism in regard to sex, ... More

Race, Ethnicity, and Political Behavior  

Aida Just

Online publication date:
Jan 2017
Whether as a consequence of colonialism or more recent international migration, ethnic diversity has become a prominent feature of many contemporary democracies. Given the importance of ... More

Racial Prejudice, Racial Identity, and Attitudes in Political Decision Making  

Ashley Jardina and Spencer Piston

A great deal of work in the domain of race and politics has focused on two phenomena: racial prejudice and racial solidarity. Scholarship on racial prejudice has primarily examined the ... More

Racial Priming with Implicit and Explicit Messages  

Michael Tesler

Online publication date:
May 2017
An expansive body of research known as racial priming consistently shows that media and campaign content can make racial attitudes more important factors in Americans’ political ... More

Racial Stereotyping in Political Decision Making  

Ray Block Jr.

Online publication date:
May 2019
Simply defined, stereotypes are commonly-held beliefs about groups of people. Racial stereotypes are the widely shared perceptions that people have about certain social groups and the ... More

Radio as a Political Medium in Africa  

Harri Englund

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Radio’s affordability, portability, and use of local languages have long granted it a special status among mass media in Africa. Its development across the continent has followed ... More

The “Rally-'Round-the-Flag” Phenomenon and the Diversionary Use of Force  

Shoon Murray

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
The observation that groups unify in the face of common threats is long-standing. At the level of the nation-state, this is called the “rally-'round-the-flag” phenomenon. In the case of ... More

Rational Choice Institutionalism and European Integration  

Gerald Schneider and Anastasia Ershova

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Rational choice institutionalism (RCI) conceives of European integration as the outcome of three interplaying forces—interests, information, and institutions. Cooperation in the European ... More

Realism in Foreign Policy Analysis  

Anders Wivel

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Realists explain foreign policy in terms of power politics. They disagree on the exact meaning of power and on how and to what extent politics is likely to influence policy. But they all ... More

Real-Time Responses to Campaign Communication  

Marcus Maurer

Online publication date:
May 2016
Real-time response measurement (RTR), sometimes also called continuous response measurement (CRM), is a computerized survey tool that continuously measures short-time perceptions while ... More

Reconceptualizing Field Research in Political Science  

Diana Kapiszewski, Lauren M. MacLean, and Benjamin L. Read

Generations of political scientists have set out for destinations near and far to pursue field research. Even in a digitally networked era, the researcher’s personal presence and ... More

Reconsidering African Elections  

Carolien van Ham and Staffan Lindberg

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
The quality of elections in Africa demonstrates considerable progress from the early attempts in the 1950s and 1960s to the increasingly democratic era following the end of the Cold War. ... More

Rediscovering Reputation Through Theory and Evidence  

Mark J. C. Crescenzi and Bailee Donahue

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Reputation as it applies to the arena of international relations is information adhering to a state or its leaders about behavioral or intentional characteristics relating to cooperation ... More

Referendums  

Matthew Qvortrup

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

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