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Systemic Leadership, Energy Considerations, and the Leadership Long-Cycle Perspective  

William R. Thompson and Leila Zakhirova

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
System leaders, sometimes referred to as hegemons or world powers, emerge based on a foundation of technological innovation and global military reach. To this foundation energy is now ... More

Taking China Seriously: Relationality, Tianxia, and the “Chinese School” of International Relations  

Salvatore Babones

China’s economic rise has been accompanied by the maturation and increasing professionalization of academic disciplines in China, including the discipline of international relations. The ... More

Taxation and Spending in Latin America  

David Doyle

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
The battle over state redistribution, and the means to pay for welfare transfers, lies at the heart of contemporary political economy. This has been one of the central plinths of political ... More

Tax, Politics, and the Social Contract in Africa  

Wilson Prichard

Online publication date:
May 2019
Though traditionally thought of as the preserve of technical experts—lawyers, economists and accountants—the study of taxation has recently attracted growing attention, with mounting ... More

Technocratic Government and Economic Policy  

Despina Alexiadou

The surge in the appointments of technocrats to the top economic portfolios of finance since the 2009 Great Recession, and even the formation of fully technocratic governments in Europe, ... More

The Territorial Peace: A Research Program  

Douglas M. Gibler

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
The first argument that the democratic peace may, in fact, be the product of a larger, territorial peace among states was published in 2007. The argument was based on the strong findings ... More

The Territorial Peace: Theory, Evidence, and Implications  

Marc L. Hutchison and Daniel G. Starr

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
The territorial peace theory predicts that neighboring states with stable borders not only avoid conflict but that the removal of territorial threat facilitates the democratization process ... More

Territory, Contentious Issues, and International Relations  

Paul R. Hensel

Online publication date:
May 2017
Territorial issues have been prominent causes of armed conflict and war in the modern era. This observation has led to a rapidly growing body of academic literature on the sources, ... More

Terrorism and Foreign Policy  

Brian Lai

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
The effect of foreign policy on terrorism is an important area of research that bridges work on international relations and intrastate conflict by highlighting how an outside country can ... More

Terrorism and Religion: An Overview  

Peter Henne

The terrorist attacks of 9/11—in which al-Qaeda operatives flew airplanes into the World Trade Center and the Pentagon and attempted to crash an additional plane into the Capitol Building ... More

Terrorism and Religion: Boko Haram  

Dane Imerman

Despite operating as a regional terrorist organization in Nigeria, Boko Haram has gained international attention since kidnapping 276 schoolgirls in 2014. Scholarly research on the ... More

Terrorism and Religion: Christian Fundamentalism  

Douglas Pratt

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
Terrorism is a multifaceted phenomenon. It is by no means the sole province of religious fundamentalism although it can be (and sometimes is) the end result of an ideological trajectory ... More

Terrorism and Religion: Palestine  

Arie Perliger

In its early stages the Israeli-Palestinian conflict was dominated by two secular nationalist movements, which marginalized religious practices and institutions. However, since the early ... More

Terrorism as a Global Wave Phenomenon: An Overview  

David C. Rapoport

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Global terror began in the 1880s, but it took a century before a few scholars began to understand its peculiar dynamic. One reason for the difficulty was that many scholars and government ... More

Terrorism as a Global Wave Phenomenon: Anarchist Wave  

David C. Rapoport

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
The First Wave of global terrorism began in Russia. After Russia was humiliated in the Crimean War (1853–1856), Czar Alexander II decided to make it more like Western states which seemed ... More

Terrorism as a Global Wave Phenomenon: Anticolonial Wave  

David C. Rapoport

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
The Versailles Treaty ending World War I established a new international order by creating the League of Nations and, dividing the defeated empires in Europe into a number of ... More

Terrorism as a Global Wave Phenomenon: New Left Wave  

David C. Rapoport

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
By the 1960s the international world changed dramatically. While the nuclear balance of terror created by the atomic bomb prevented war between the First and the Second Worlds, proxy wars ... More

Terrorism as a Global Wave Phenomenon: Religious Wave  

David C. Rapoport

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Time gaps existed in the first three waves between precipitating political events and the development of terrorist activity. But now the time gap has disappeared because the precipitating ... More

The Foreign Policy Implications of Financial Crises  

Ronja Kempin

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
To what extent is the “Euro-crisis” a problem for the EU’s international standing and role? A conceptual framework has been developed based on the five distinct analytical categories: (a) ... More

The Foreign Relations of Subnational Governments  

Samuel Lucas McMillan

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Subnational governments are increasingly involved in foreign policy and foreign relations in activities usually labeled as paradiplomacy or constituent diplomacy. This phenomenon is due to ... More

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