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Radio as a Political Medium in Africa  

Harri Englund

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Radio’s affordability, portability, and use of local languages have long granted it a special status among mass media in Africa. Its development across the continent has followed ... More

The “Rally-'Round-the-Flag” Phenomenon and the Diversionary Use of Force  

Shoon Murray

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
The observation that groups unify in the face of common threats is long-standing. At the level of the nation-state, this is called the “rally-'round-the-flag” phenomenon. In the case of ... More

Rational Choice Institutionalism and European Integration  

Gerald Schneider and Anastasia Ershova

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Rational choice institutionalism (RCI) conceives of European integration as the outcome of three interplaying forces—interests, information, and institutions. Cooperation in the European ... More

Realism in Foreign Policy Analysis  

Anders Wivel

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Realists explain foreign policy in terms of power politics. They disagree on the exact meaning of power and on how and to what extent politics is likely to influence policy. But they all ... More

Real-Time Responses to Campaign Communication  

Marcus Maurer

Online publication date:
May 2016
Real-time response measurement (RTR), sometimes also called continuous response measurement (CRM), is a computerized survey tool that continuously measures short-time perceptions while ... More

Reconceptualizing Field Research in Political Science  

Diana Kapiszewski, Lauren M. MacLean, and Benjamin L. Read

Generations of political scientists have set out for destinations near and far to pursue field research. Even in a digitally networked era, the researcher’s personal presence and ... More

Reconsidering African Elections  

Carolien van Ham and Staffan Lindberg

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
The quality of elections in Africa demonstrates considerable progress from the early attempts in the 1950s and 1960s to the increasingly democratic era following the end of the Cold War. ... More

Rediscovering Reputation Through Theory and Evidence  

Mark J. C. Crescenzi and Bailee Donahue

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Reputation as it applies to the arena of international relations is information adhering to a state or its leaders about behavioral or intentional characteristics relating to cooperation ... More

Referendums  

Matthew Qvortrup

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Referendums in the European Union  

Derek Beach

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Referendums are frequently used to ratify European Union (EU)–related propositions. Since 1972 there have been in total 46 EU-related referendums, excluding third-country referendums on ... More

Regime Type and Foreign Direct Investment: A Transaction Cost Economics Approach to the Debate  

Austin P. Johnson and Quan Li

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
A debate exists in international political economy on the relationship between regime type and foreign direct investment (FDI). The central point of contention focuses on whether ... More

Regional Integration Theory  

Frank Schimmelfennig

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Regional integration theory seeks to explain the establishment and development of regional international organizations. Key questions are why and under which conditions states decide to ... More

Regional Politics and Powers: Hierarchy and Comparative Regional Analysis in International Relations  

Jon Patrick Rhamey, Jr. and Thomas J. Volgy

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Comparative regionalism constitutes a new frontier of international relations analysis that provides a more focused theoretical lens for understanding the localized phenomena dominant in ... More

Regions of War and Peace in Foreign Policy  

Alex Weisiger

Online publication date:
May 2017
A significant, if minority, current in contemporary international relations scholarship places regions at the center of analysis. In practice, the shift to the regional level of analysis ... More

Religion and Political Conflict: “No Religious Affiliation” in the United States  

Kristi Winters

After years of exceptionally high levels of religious adherence and identity, the latter part of the 20th century saw the start of a trend: increasing numbers of Americans reported they ... More

Religion in Foreign Policy  

Jeffrey Haynes

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Most states’ foreign policies are secular in orientation and focus. A few make religion a prominent component of their ideological approach to foreign policy. States whose foreign policies ... More

Religion in International Relations  

Tanya B. Schwarz and Cecelia Lynch

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
Though religion was never absent from international relations, since the Iranian Revolution, the end of the Cold War, and the events of 9/11, the international community has taken a ... More

Religious Communication and Persuasion  

Benjamin R. Knoll and Cammie Jo Bolin

Religious communication affects political behavior through two primary channels: political messages coming from a religious source and religious messages coming from a political source. In ... More

Religious Communication and the Effects of Priming  

Gwyneth McClendon

Despite predictions that urbanization, economic development and globalization would lead to the recession of religion from public life, populations around the world continue to be highly ... More

Religious Establishment as a Subject of Political Science  

Michael Driessen

Recent scholarly attention to religious establishment can be understood as a response to the crisis of secularization theory and the apparent return of religion to global politics. As a ... More

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