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Religious Frames: Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood  

Meir Hatina and Uri M. Kupferschmidt

When the Arab Spring of 2011 sparked a second revolution in Egypt (the first having occurred in 1952), it caught the longstanding Muslim Brotherhood almost by surprise. Arguably the oldest ... More

Religious Frames: Falun Gong in China  

Junpeng Li

The crackdown on Falun Gong by the Chinese Communist Party demonstrates the unintended consequences of the deep penetration of politics into religious affairs in an authoritarian regime. ... More

Religious Frames: The Gülen Movement  

Etga Ugur

The Gülen movement is a transnational social movement with presence in more than 120 countries. The movement emerged out of Turkey’s informal Islamic sector in the 1960s and combined ... More

Religious Frames: U.S. Civil Rights Movement  

Dennis C. Dickerson

Religion provided an intellectual fulcrum, institutional support, and leadership to the U.S. civil rights movement. Whether through the eloquent and influential articulation of ... More

Religious Nationalism and Religious Influence  

Anna Grzymala-Busse

Religious nationalism, or the fusion of religious and national identities and goals, is an increasingly salient aspect of nationalism. Rather than secular nationalism simply replacing ... More

Religious Regulation: Discrimination Against Religious Minorities  

Jonathan Fox

The definition of the term “religious discrimination” is contested, but for the purposes of this discussion religious discrimination is defined as restrictions on the religious practices ... More

Religious Regulation in Autocracies  

Lawrence C. Reardon

Unlike democracies, the stability and longevity of autocracies are solely dependent on the ability of the paramount leader to maintain and wield power effectively. Whether the autocracy is ... More

Religious Regulation in Brazil  

Claudia Cerqueira and Guadalupe Tuñón

Online publication date:
Aug 2019
During the past three decades, the tide in religious affiliation has rapidly shifted in Latin America. The predominance of Catholicism in the region has been challenged by the expansion of ... More

Religious Regulation in China  

Lawrence C. Reardon

Establishing a totalitarian state after 1949, Chinese Communist Party elites formulated religious regulations that ensured strong national security and guaranteed the Party’s hegemonic ... More

Religious Regulation in France  

Paul Christopher Manuel

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
Its past appears to be in constant tension with the present over the question of religious restriction. That tension might properly be understood as a centuries-long struggle between those ... More

Religious Regulation in India  

Kristina M. Teater and Laura Dudley Jenkins

Freedom of religion is a constitutional right in India, but this religiously diverse democracy regulates religion in several ways, including enforcing religious personal laws, regulating ... More

Religious Regulation in Iran  

Mehran Tamadonfar and Roman B. Lewis

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
The history of religious minority politics and rights in Iran dates back to the early periods of the ancient Persian Empire. With the passage of time, expansion of the empire led to ... More

Religious Regulation in Ireland  

Vesna Malešević

Online publication date:
Oct 2019
While three-quarters of the population in Ireland still declare to be Catholic in census data collection, the position and role of the Catholic Church has changed dramatically. A fruitful ... More

Religious Regulation in Muslim States  

Andrew Bramsen and Zoe Vermeer

Muslim majority states regulate religion at much higher levels on average than non-Muslim states. There are two main explanations for this. First, Muslim states are on average much less ... More

Religious Regulation in Poland  

Ewa A. Golebiowska and Silviya Gancheva

Online publication date:
Jan 2019
It is a truism to say that most Poles are Catholic. Yet, there is also a large number of other churches and religious organizations that are currently registered with the Polish state, ... More

Religious Regulation in the United States  

Barbara A. McGraw and James T. Richardson

Although the United States Constitution presumably was designed to avoid “regulation” of religion, there is an interplay between religious individuals and private organizations, on the one ... More

Religious Regulation: The Regulation of All Religion in a Country  

Jonathan Fox

Countries can regulate both the majority religion and minority religions. Although most countries do both, the motivations and dynamics of these two types of regulation are distinct. The ... More

Religious Traditions in Politics: Buddhism  

André Laliberté

Buddhists constitute a majority of the population in peninsular Southeast Asia, but the largest concentration of Buddhists lives in East Asia. The delay between the times the Buddha gave ... More

Religious Traditions in Politics: Catholicism  

Lawrence C. Reardon

Online publication date:
Aug 2019
Traveling from Galilea and Judea 2,000 years ago to the far reaches of the Roman Empire, Jewish Christians gradually transformed their small gatherings of believers into a major European ... More

Religious Traditions in Politics: Confucianism  

Youngmin Kim, Se-Hyun Kim, and Ji Hye Song

Online publication date:
Aug 2019
Because of the missionary activities of Jesuits in late imperial China and the world religions paradigm that emerged in the late 19th century, scholars tend to view Confucianism as a world ... More

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