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The Changing Nature of Political Party Membership  

Susan E. Scarrow

Online publication date:
Jan 2017
Party membership has long been an important channel for political participation in many countries. Strong membership organizations have helped parties win elections and stay connected with ... More

Changing Patterns of Political Violence in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Kate M. Carter and Scott Straus

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Contrary to common assumption, major forms of large-scale organized political violence in sub-Saharan Africa have declined in frequency and intensity, and the region is not uniquely prone ... More

China’s Economic Impact on Africa  

David H. Shinn

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
China’s economic impact on Africa in the 21st century has been enormous. China became Africa’s largest trading partner in 2009 and has subsequently widened the gap with Africa’s second ... More

China and Political Governance in Africa  

Ian Taylor

Online publication date:
Jan 2019
China’s engagement in Africa since around 2000 has been exponential, and Beijing is now perhaps the major player on the continent. With this has come criticism, mainly but not exclusively ... More

Church, State, and Political Culture in Orthodox Christianity  

Victor Roudometof

Conventional views assume a systematic intertwining between the Orthodox Church and the state, which makes Orthodox countries culturally hostile to modernity. These views have been shaped ... More

Citizens and Political Sophistication  

Henrik Oscarsson and Lauri Rapeli

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Political sophistication refers to the role of expertise and the use of information in the forming of political judgments. Citizens in a democracy need a sufficient level of ... More

Citizenship Law as the Foundation for Political Participation in Africa  

Bronwen Manby

The question of membership and belonging is widely recognized to have been at the root of many political crises in Africa since independence. The legal frameworks for citizenship were ... More

Civil Disobedience and Conscientious Objection  

William Smith and Kimberley Brownlee

Online publication date:
May 2017
Civil disobedience and conscientious objection are distinct but related social practices that display people’s opposition to specific laws, policies, directives, or schemes. In general, ... More

Civilian Self-Protection and Civilian Targeting in Armed Conflicts: Who Protects Civilians?  

Betcy Jose and Peace A. Medie

Online publication date:
Dec 2016
Studies have shown that civilians are often intentionally targeted in civil wars and that civilian protection efforts launched by the international community have not always been ... More

Civil Service Systems  

Vainius Smalskys and Jolanta Urbanovič

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
Civil service consists of civil servants and their activity when implementing the assigned functions and decisions made by politicians. In other words, it is a system of civil servants who ... More

Civil Strife, Politics, and Religion in Algeria  

Yahia H. Zoubir

The Islamist movement in Algeria and Islamist ideas (politicized/revivalist, Islamic reformism) date back to the colonial period. While Radical Islamist Groups (RIGs) and Salafi Jihadist ... More

Civil War and Religion: Salafi-Jihadist Groups  

Emil Aslan Souleimanov

Reflecting on the recent rise of Salafi groups and their impact on civil war, the academic literature on Salafi radicalization, mobilization, and recruitment has burgeoned in the recent ... More

Civil War and Religion: Turkey  

Gülay Türkmen

Out of the 111 armed conflicts that took place worldwide between 1989 and 2000, only seven were interstate conflicts. The others were intrastate in nature. As a result, the last decade and ... More

Civil War and Terrorism: A Call for Further Theory Building  

Charity Butcher

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Since the September 11 terrorist attacks on the United States, terrorism has gained increased prominence in both scholarship and the media. While international terrorist acts are quite ... More

Civil War from a Transnational Perspective  

Kristian Skrede Gleditsch

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Civil war is the dominant form of armed conflict in the contemporary international system, and most severe lethal armed conflicts in the post-Cold War era have been civil/intrastate rather ... More

Civil War Termination  

Caroline A. Hartzell

Civil wars typically have been terminated by a variety of means, including military victories, negotiated settlements and ceasefires, and “draws.” Three very different historical trends in ... More

Clarifying Causal Mechanisms in International Relations  

Patrick James

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Theory and evidence about causal mechanisms, at some point (probably) long ago, reached the carrying capacity for integration into knowledge through expression in words alone. Causal ... More

Climate Change and Justice  

Christopher Armstrong

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Understanding the complex set of processes collected under the heading of climate change represents a considerable scientific challenge. But it also raises important challenges for our ... More

Climate Change in Foreign Policy  

Amy Below

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Climate change emerged in the late 20th century as a topic of global concern and thus a prominent foreign policy issue. Academic scholarship on the international community’s response to ... More

Climate Policy in European Union Politics  

Tom Delreux and Frauke Ohler

The fight against climate change has become a major area of action for the European Union (EU), both at the European and the international level. EU climate policy has gained importance ... More

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