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Think Tanks and Foreign Policy  

Lars Brozus and Hanns W. Maull

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Foreign policy think tanks originated in the context of the Industrial Revolution and world wars in Western industrialized countries and then spread to all parts of the globe. In the ... More

To Arms, To Arms: What Do We Know About Arms Races?  

Richard J. Stoll

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Arms races are important phenomenon They can involve the commitment of vast amounts of resources that might otherwise be used to help societies. And arms races can be a cause of war, ... More

Toward an Evolutionary Theory of International Relations  

Rose McDermott and Christian Davenport

Online publication date:
Jan 2017
The current practice of conceiving and examining international relations within the dogma of the existing dominant paradigm in international relations unnecessarily truncates our ... More

Trade and Culture  

Kerry A. Chase

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Government policies to protect and promote national culture are a perennial issue in the trading system. Controversy over trade and culture, in almost every instance, swirls around ... More

Trade Union Politics in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Nick Bernards

Although unionized workers have rarely represented more than a small minority of the population anywhere in sub-Saharan Africa, trade unions have played, and continue to play, a ... More

Trade Unions and Politics in Latin America  

Graciela Bensusán

Online publication date:
Aug 2019
The links between unions and political parties have been present throughout much of the 20th century and early 21st century in most Latin American countries. Since these links were ... More

Trade Unions in South Africa  

Ari Sitas and Bianca Tame

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics. Please check back later for the full article. South ... More

Traditional Institutions of Governance in Africa  

Kidane Mengisteab

Online publication date:
May 2019
Most African countries are characterized by parallel institutions, one representing the formal laws of the state and the other representing the traditional institutions that are adhered to ... More

Traditional Leaders and Development in Africa  

Lauren Honig

Traditional leaders have a significant role in the social, political, and economic lives of citizens in countries throughout Africa. They are defined as local elites who derive legitimacy ... More

Transfer and Learning: Do They Go Together?  

David P. Dolowitz

Online publication date:
May 2017
While a phenomena dating back to antiquity, it wasn’t until the 1960s that American and European social scientists began seriously discussing occurrences in which it appeared as if ... More

Transgender and Nonbinary Gender Policy in the Public Sector  

Nicole M. Elias

Online publication date:
May 2019
Our understanding and treatment of gender in the United States has evolved significantly over the past four decades. Transgender individuals in the current U.S. context enjoy more rights ... More

Transgender Rights Interest Groups in the United States  

Anthony J. Nownes

Online publication date:
May 2019
Although the Trump Administration has been decidedly unfriendly to transgender Americans, there is no question that transgender people have made substantial policy, political, and societal ... More

Transgender-Specific Policy in Latin America  

Baird Campbell

The situation of trans rights in Latin America varies greatly by country and region despite a binding 2017 opinion from the Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACHR) clarifying member ... More

Transitional Justice During Armed Conflict  

Cyanne E. Loyle

Armed conflict is ultimately about the violent confrontation between two or more groups; however, there is a range of behaviors, both violent and nonviolent, pursued by governments and ... More

Transnational Social Movements in Latin America  

Marisa von Bülow

Online publication date:
Sep 2019
Latin American transnational social movements (TSMs) are key actors in debates about the future of global governance. Since the 1990s, they have played an important role in creating new ... More

Transport Policy and European Union Policy  

Cyril Alias, Bernd Kleinheyer, and Carla Fieber-Alias

In an integrated European Union, transport would be expected to be a major enabler of economic development and consumer services. This role, however, was not acknowledged, though laid down ... More

The Treaties of Rome  

Kiran Klaus Patel

Online publication date:
May 2019
Together with the Treaty of Paris (1951), which established the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), the two Treaties of Rome (1957) were the founding treaties of today’s European ... More

Trust and Social Relations in African Politics  

Dominic Burbidge

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Africa is a place of low social trust. This fact is significant for understanding the politics and economics of the region, whether for questions of national unity or economic coordination ... More

Twenty Years of de facto State Studies: Progress, Problems, and Prospects  

Scott Pegg

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
It has been almost 20 years since the publication of International Society and the De Facto State by Scott Pegg in 1998, the first book-length substantive theoretical attempt to ... More

The Two-Good Theory in Practice: From Abstract Generalization to Specific Inference  

T. Clifton Morgan and Glenn Palmer

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
The “two-good theory” is a theory of foreign policy that is meant to apply to all states in all situations; that is, it is general. The theory is simple and assumes that states pursue two ... More

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