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Citizens and Political Sophistication  

Henrik Oscarsson and Lauri Rapeli

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Political sophistication refers to the role of expertise and the use of information in the forming of political judgments. Citizens in a democracy need a sufficient level of ... More

Citizenship Law as the Foundation for Political Participation in Africa  

Bronwen Manby

The question of membership and belonging is widely recognized to have been at the root of many political crises in Africa since independence. The legal frameworks for citizenship were ... More

Civil Disobedience and Conscientious Objection  

William Smith and Kimberley Brownlee

Online publication date:
May 2017
Civil disobedience and conscientious objection are distinct but related social practices that display people’s opposition to specific laws, policies, directives, or schemes. In general, ... More

Civilian Self-Protection and Civilian Targeting in Armed Conflicts: Who Protects Civilians?  

Betcy Jose and Peace A. Medie

Online publication date:
Dec 2016
Studies have shown that civilians are often intentionally targeted in civil wars and that civilian protection efforts launched by the international community have not always been ... More

Civil Service Systems  

Vainius Smalskys and Jolanta Urbanovič

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
Civil service consists of civil servants and their activity when implementing the assigned functions and decisions made by politicians. In other words, it is a system of civil servants who ... More

Civil Strife, Politics, and Religion in Algeria  

Yahia H. Zoubir

The Islamist movement in Algeria and Islamist ideas (politicized/revivalist, Islamic reformism) date back to the colonial period. While Radical Islamist Groups (RIGs) and Salafi Jihadist ... More

Civil War and Religion: An Overview  

Isak Svensson

The relationship between civil war and religion is a complex one. Civil wars are influenced in many different ways by religiously based factors. Different religiously based factors ... More

Civil War and Religion: Salafi-Jihadist Groups  

Emil Aslan Souleimanov

Reflecting on the recent rise of Salafi groups and their impact on civil war, the academic literature on Salafi radicalization, mobilization, and recruitment has burgeoned in the recent ... More

Civil War and Religion: Turkey  

Gülay Türkmen

Out of the 111 armed conflicts that took place worldwide between 1989 and 2000, only seven were interstate conflicts. The others were intrastate in nature. As a result, the last decade and ... More

Civil War and Terrorism: A Call for Further Theory Building  

Charity Butcher

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Since the September 11 terrorist attacks on the United States, terrorism has gained increased prominence in both scholarship and the media. While international terrorist acts are quite ... More

Civil War from a Transnational Perspective  

Kristian Skrede Gleditsch

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Civil war is the dominant form of armed conflict in the contemporary international system, and most severe lethal armed conflicts in the post-Cold War era have been civil/intrastate rather ... More

Civil War Termination  

Caroline A. Hartzell

Civil wars typically have been terminated by a variety of means, including military victories, negotiated settlements and ceasefires, and “draws.” Three very different historical trends in ... More

Clarifying Causal Mechanisms in International Relations  

Patrick James

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Theory and evidence about causal mechanisms, at some point (probably) long ago, reached the carrying capacity for integration into knowledge through expression in words alone. Causal ... More

Clientelism in Latin American Politics  

Ezequiel Gonzalez-Ocantos and Virginia Oliveros

Online publication date:
Aug 2019
Clientelism is a type of nonprogrammatic linkage strategy that political parties deploy to win elections. Specifically, the concept refers to the personalized and discretionary exchange of ... More

Climate Change and Justice  

Christopher Armstrong

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Understanding the complex set of processes collected under the heading of climate change represents a considerable scientific challenge. But it also raises important challenges for our ... More

Climate Change in Foreign Policy  

Amy Below

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Climate change emerged in the late 20th century as a topic of global concern and thus a prominent foreign policy issue. Academic scholarship on the international community’s response to ... More

Climate Policy in European Union Politics  

Tom Delreux and Frauke Ohler

The fight against climate change has become a major area of action for the European Union (EU), both at the European and the international level. EU climate policy has gained importance ... More

Coalition Politics and Foreign Policy  

Sibel Oktay

Online publication date:
May 2017
Coalition governments are observed frequently in parliamentary systems. Approximately 70% of all governments in postwar Europe have been one type of coalition or another. Israel has never ... More

Cognitive Approaches to Foreign Policy Analysis  

Aaron Rapport

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Cognitive theory encompasses mental activities such as the observation of different stimuli in an environment; the memorization and recall of information; pattern recognition and problem ... More

Cohesion Policy and European Union Politics  

Simona Piattoni and Laura Polverari

Cohesion policy is one of the longest-standing features of the European construction; its roots have been traced as far back as the Treaty of Rome. Over time, it has become one of the most ... More

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