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Central Agencies and Control in Public Administration  

Donald J. Savoie

Online publication date:
Dec 2019
The concentration of power at the center of government transcends both political systems and geography. Heads of government everywhere are dealing with powerful forces from permanent ... More

Central Banks  

Alex Cukierman

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
The first CBs were private institutions that were given a monopoly over the issuance of currency by government in return for help in financing the budget and adherence to the rules of the ... More

Challenges and Possibilities of Empirical International Relations Theory: Evidence From Research in Brazil  

Fernanda Barasuol and Andre Reis da Silva

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Much of the debate in international relations (IR) theory in the past decades has concerned epistemological matters and the possibility of empirical research in the field. Most of this ... More

The Challenges of Making Research Collaboration in Africa More Equitable  

Susan Dodsworth

Collaborative research has a critical role to play in furthering our understanding of African politics. Many of the most important and interesting questions in the field are difficult, if ... More

Change and Continuity in African Electoral Politics Since Multipartyism  

Jaimie Bleck and Nicolas van de Walle

Between 1990 and 2015, 184 multicandidate presidential elections and 207 multiparty legislative elections were held in some 46 countries of sub-Saharan Africa. What does the routinization ... More

The Changing Nature of Political Party Membership  

Susan E. Scarrow

Online publication date:
Jan 2017
Party membership has long been an important channel for political participation in many countries. Strong membership organizations have helped parties win elections and stay connected with ... More

Changing Patterns of Political Violence in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Kate M. Carter and Scott Straus

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Contrary to common assumption, major forms of large-scale organized political violence in sub-Saharan Africa have declined in frequency and intensity, and the region is not uniquely prone ... More

The Changing Shapes of Latin American Welfare States  

Evelyne Huber and Zoila Ponce de León

Latin American welfare states have undergone major changes over the past half century. As of 1980, there were only a handful of countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, and ... More

Characterization, Strategies, and Objectives of the Latin American Right  

Barry Cannon

Online publication date:
Sep 2019
Work on the Latin American right mainly assumes it is a political phenomenon, despite recognition that it emerges from, and can be supplanted by, groups of actors from within and across ... More

China’s Economic Impact on Africa  

David H. Shinn

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
China’s economic impact on Africa in the 21st century has been enormous. China became Africa’s largest trading partner in 2009 and has subsequently widened the gap with Africa’s second ... More

China and Political Governance in Africa  

Ian Taylor

Online publication date:
Jan 2019
China’s engagement in Africa since around 2000 has been exponential, and Beijing is now perhaps the major player on the continent. With this has come criticism, mainly but not exclusively ... More

China and the European Union  

Emil Kirchner

Online publication date:
Dec 2019
European Union–China relations have despite different histories and values, economic and political development, geographic distance and interests, not only strengthened over time in ... More

The Christian Right in U.S. Politics  

Kimberly H. Conger

The Christian Right has been an active force in Republican and American politics for over 40 years. Its focus on morality politics (abortion, euthanasia, same-sex marriage, pornography, ... More

Church, State, and Political Culture in Orthodox Christianity  

Victor Roudometof

Conventional views assume a systematic intertwining between the Orthodox Church and the state, which makes Orthodox countries culturally hostile to modernity. These views have been shaped ... More

Citizens and Political Sophistication  

Henrik Oscarsson and Lauri Rapeli

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Political sophistication refers to the role of expertise and the use of information in the forming of political judgments. Citizens in a democracy need a sufficient level of ... More

Citizenship Law as the Foundation for Political Participation in Africa  

Bronwen Manby

The question of membership and belonging is widely recognized to have been at the root of many political crises in Africa since independence. The legal frameworks for citizenship were ... More

Civil Disobedience and Conscientious Objection  

William Smith and Kimberley Brownlee

Online publication date:
May 2017
Civil disobedience and conscientious objection are distinct but related social practices that display people’s opposition to specific laws, policies, directives, or schemes. In general, ... More

Civilian Self-Protection and Civilian Targeting in Armed Conflicts: Who Protects Civilians?  

Betcy Jose and Peace A. Medie

Online publication date:
Dec 2016
Studies have shown that civilians are often intentionally targeted in civil wars and that civilian protection efforts launched by the international community have not always been ... More

Civil Service Systems  

Vainius Smalskys and Jolanta Urbanovič

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
Civil service consists of civil servants and their activity when implementing the assigned functions and decisions made by politicians. In other words, it is a system of civil servants who ... More

Civil Strife, Politics, and Religion in Algeria  

Yahia H. Zoubir

The Islamist movement in Algeria and Islamist ideas (politicized/revivalist, Islamic reformism) date back to the colonial period. While Radical Islamist Groups (RIGs) and Salafi Jihadist ... More

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