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Transgender and Nonbinary Gender Policy in the Public Sector  

Nicole M. Elias

Online publication date:
May 2019
Our understanding and treatment of gender in the United States has evolved significantly over the past four decades. Transgender individuals in the current U.S. context enjoy more rights ... More

Transgender Law and Policy in the United States  

Shannon Gilreath

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
Transgender people have a complicated history in U.S. law and policy. Once thought of as a symptom of homosexuality, gender nonconformity has long been the subject of social disapprobation ... More

Transgender Rights Interest Groups in the United States  

Anthony J. Nownes

Online publication date:
May 2019
Although the Trump Administration has been decidedly unfriendly to transgender Americans, there is no question that transgender people have made substantial policy, political, and societal ... More

Transgender-Specific Policy: Gender Identity Inclusion in Public Accommodations  

Andrew R. Flores and Justin O'Neill

In the early 21st century the public debates about the inclusion of gender identity in public accommodations municipal ordinances and statewide and national laws represent another step in ... More

Transgender-Specific Policy in Latin America  

Baird Campbell

The situation of trans rights in Latin America varies greatly by country and region despite a binding 2017 opinion from the Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACHR) clarifying member ... More

Transitional Justice During Armed Conflict  

Cyanne E. Loyle

Armed conflict is ultimately about the violent confrontation between two or more groups; however, there is a range of behaviors, both violent and nonviolent, pursued by governments and ... More

Transnational Social Movements in Latin America  

Marisa von Bülow

Online publication date:
Sep 2019
Latin American transnational social movements (TSMs) are key actors in debates about the future of global governance. Since the 1990s, they have played an important role in creating new ... More

Transparency in Public Administration  

Tero Erkkilä

Transparency is one of the keywords of contemporary governance. It is often associated with democratic accountability, but it also carries connotations of market efficiency. Though ... More

Transport Policy and European Union Policy  

Cyril Alias, Bernd Kleinheyer, and Carla Fieber-Alias

In an integrated European Union, transport would be expected to be a major enabler of economic development and consumer services. This role, however, was not acknowledged, though laid down ... More

The Treaties of Rome  

Kiran Klaus Patel

Online publication date:
May 2019
Together with the Treaty of Paris (1951), which established the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), the two Treaties of Rome (1957) were the founding treaties of today’s European ... More

Trial Courts in the United States  

Christina L. Boyd and Adam G. Rutkowski

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
Trial court judges are often referred to as the workhorses of the judicial system. This is unsurprising given that millions of civil and criminal cases are filed and resolved in U.S. state ... More

Trust and Social Relations in African Politics  

Dominic Burbidge

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Africa is a place of low social trust. This fact is significant for understanding the politics and economics of the region, whether for questions of national unity or economic coordination ... More

Turkey and the European Union  

Birol A. Yesilada

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
The partnership between the European Union (EU) and Turkey has been unlike any other accession process. Turkey has had a close relationship with Western Europe since it joined the National ... More

Twenty Years of de facto State Studies: Progress, Problems, and Prospects  

Scott Pegg

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
It has been almost 20 years since the publication of International Society and the De Facto State by Scott Pegg in 1998, the first book-length substantive theoretical attempt to investigate ... More

The Two-Good Theory in Practice: From Abstract Generalization to Specific Inference  

T. Clifton Morgan and Glenn Palmer

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
The “two-good theory” is a theory of foreign policy that is meant to apply to all states in all situations; that is, it is general. The theory is simple and assumes that states pursue two ... More

240 Years of Foreign Policy Moods in a Democracy Which Grew Into a Superpower: What It Means for IR Theory  

Jack E. Holmes

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
In 1952, Frank L. Klingberg identified U.S. foreign policy moods since 1776 as alternating between an average of 21 years of introversion and 27 years of extroversion. The last extrovert ... More

Two-Level Games in Foreign Policy Analysis  

Eugénia da Conceição-Heldt and Patrick A. Mello

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Whether in multilateral negotiations or bilateral meetings, government leaders regularly engage in “two-level games” played simultaneously at the domestic and the international level. From ... More

Typology of Media Systems  

Daniel C. Hallin

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Typologies are a central tool of comparative analysis in the social sciences. Typologies identify common patterns in the relationships among elements of media systems and wider social ... More

Ukraine and the European Union  

Giselle Bosse

In early 2014, a series of dramatic crises in Ukraine generated headlines around the world. Most scholarly attention was placed on the tensions between the West and Russia, and the ... More

Understanding and Deploying the Political Settlement Framework in Africa  

Hazel Gray

Online publication date:
Aug 2019
Research using variants of political settlement analysis have gained prominence in scholarship on Africa. Political settlement research provides an analytical lens that takes the researcher ... More

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