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The Treaty of Paris  

Desmond Dinan

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
On June 20, 1950, representatives of six countries (Belgium, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands) met in Paris to launch what became the first ... More

The United Kingdom and the European Union  

Alasdair Blair

Since the end of World War II a key question that successive U.K. governments have faced is what position the country should occupy in global affairs. Such a question stemmed from the ... More

The Western European Union (WEU)  

Maxime H. A. Larivé

Online publication date:
Jul 2019
This empirical and historical analysis of the Western European Union (WEU), an intergovernmental defense organization, contributes to the broader understanding of the construction and ... More

Think Tanks and Foreign Policy  

Lars Brozus and Hanns W. Maull

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Foreign policy think tanks originated in the context of the Industrial Revolution and world wars in Western industrialized countries and then spread to all parts of the globe. In the ... More

Think Tanks and Policymaking  

Hartwig Pautz

Online publication date:
Apr 2020
The study of think tanks brings together a range of academic disciplines and allows for multifaceted analyses, encompassing the concepts of ideas, institutions, influence, interests, and ... More

Threat Framing  

Johan Eriksson

What is “threat framing”? It concerns how something or someone is perceived, labeled, and communicated as a threat to something or someone. The designation “threat,” notably, belongs to the ... More

To Arms, To Arms: What Do We Know About Arms Races?  

Richard J. Stoll

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Arms races are important phenomenon They can involve the commitment of vast amounts of resources that might otherwise be used to help societies. And arms races can be a cause of war, ... More

Toleration and Political Philosophy  

Sune Lægaard

Online publication date:
Sep 2020
Toleration is a classic category of Western political theory. Liberalism can be said to have evolved as a generalization of debates on religious toleration from the 17th century onward. ... More

Toward an Evolutionary Theory of International Relations  

Rose McDermott and Christian Davenport

Online publication date:
Jan 2017
The current practice of conceiving and examining international relations within the dogma of the existing dominant paradigm in international relations unnecessarily truncates our ... More

Trade and Culture  

Kerry A. Chase

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Government policies to protect and promote national culture are a perennial issue in the trading system. Controversy over trade and culture, in almost every instance, swirls around ... More

Trade Union Politics in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Nick Bernards

Although unionized workers have rarely represented more than a small minority of the population anywhere in sub-Saharan Africa, trade unions have played, and continue to play, a significant ... More

Trade Unions and Politics in Latin America  

Graciela Bensusán

Online publication date:
Aug 2019
The links between unions and political parties have been present throughout much of the 20th century and early 21st century in most Latin American countries. Since these links were ... More

Traditional Institutions of Governance in Africa  

Kidane Mengisteab

Online publication date:
May 2019
Most African countries are characterized by parallel institutions, one representing the formal laws of the state and the other representing the traditional institutions that are adhered to ... More

Traditional Leaders and Development in Africa  

Lauren Honig

Traditional leaders have a significant role in the social, political, and economic lives of citizens in countries throughout Africa. They are defined as local elites who derive legitimacy ... More

Transfer and Learning: Do They Go Together?  

David P. Dolowitz

Online publication date:
May 2017
While a phenomena dating back to antiquity, it wasn’t until the 1960s that American and European social scientists began seriously discussing occurrences in which it appeared as if ... More

Transgender and Nonbinary Gender Policy in the Public Sector  

Nicole M. Elias

Online publication date:
May 2019
Our understanding and treatment of gender in the United States has evolved significantly over the past four decades. Transgender individuals in the current U.S. context enjoy more rights ... More

Transgender Law and Policy in the United States  

Shannon Gilreath

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
Transgender people have a complicated history in U.S. law and policy. Once thought of as a symptom of homosexuality, gender nonconformity has long been the subject of social disapprobation ... More

Transgender Rights Interest Groups in the United States  

Anthony J. Nownes

Online publication date:
May 2019
Although the Trump Administration has been decidedly unfriendly to transgender Americans, there is no question that transgender people have made substantial policy, political, and societal ... More

Transgender-Specific Policy: Gender Identity Inclusion in Public Accommodations  

Andrew R. Flores and Justin O'Neill

In the early 21st century the public debates about the inclusion of gender identity in public accommodations municipal ordinances and statewide and national laws represent another step in ... More

Transgender-Specific Policy in Latin America  

Baird Campbell

The situation of trans rights in Latin America varies greatly by country and region despite a binding 2017 opinion from the Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACHR) clarifying member ... More

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