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Compliance in International Relations  

Carmela Lutmar and Cristiane L. Carneiro

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
States’ compliance with international law is a multicausal event, with variables operating at various levels of analysis, such as states’ incentives, regime type, issue area, strategic ... More

The Concept of Deterrence and Deterrence Theory  

Patrick M. Morgan

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Deterrence is an old practice, readily defined and described, widely employed but unevenly effective and of questionable reliability. Elevated to prominence after World War II and the ... More

Conceptualizing Militias in Africa  

Rebecca Tapscott

Although militias have received increasing scholarly attention, the concept itself remains contested by those who study it. Why? And how does this impact contemporary scholarship on ... More

Conflict Management of Territorial Disputes  

Krista E. Wiegand

Despite the decline in interstate wars, there remain dozens of interstate disputes that could erupt into diplomatic crises and evolve into military escalation. By far the most difficult ... More

Conflict, Regions, and Regional Hierarchies  

Thomas J. Volgy, Kelly Marie Gordell, Paul Bezerra, and Jon Patrick Rhamey, Jr.

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Despite decades of scholarly attention to conflict and cooperation processes in international politics, rigorous, comparative, large-N analyses of these questions at the region level are ... More

Congress and Foreign Policy  

Bryan W. Marshall

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
The U.S. Congress has broad constitutional powers to shape foreign policy. However, Congress rarely shapes foreign policy as an equal partner with the president. Politics has the potential ... More

Constitutionalism  

Emily Zackin

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
The study of constitutionalism often begins with the question of what a constitution is. Sometimes the term refers to a single legal document with that name, but the term “constitution” ... More

Constitutional Law  

Axel Tschentscher

Research on constitutional law has come in different waves mirroring the development of states in recent decades. While the decolonization period of the 1960s still kept the old ties of ... More

Constitution-Making in Comparative Perspective  

Gabriel L. Negretto

Constitution-making has been a central political activity in the modern era. Enacting a new constitution was an essential ingredient in the foundation of republics, the creation of new ... More

Constructing a General Model Accounting for Interstate Rivalry Termination  

William R. Thompson

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Unlike many topics in international relations, a large number of models characterize interstate rivalry termination processes. But many of these models tend to focus on different parts of ... More

Constructivism  

Friedrich Kratochwil

Online publication date:
May 2017
Constructivism in the social sciences has known several ups and downs over the last decades. It was rather early successful in sociology but hotly contested in international relations. ... More

Constructivist Analyses of Foreign Policy  

David Houghton

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Most constructivist work in IR has attempted to account for very general outcomes in the international system, most notably the well-known research of Alexander Wendt. Whether we live in a ... More

The Content and Effect of Political Advertising in U.S. Campaigns  

Matthew P. Motta and Erika Franklin Fowler

Online publication date:
Dec 2016
Political advertising, especially negative advertising, is a prominent feature of contemporary political campaigns in the United States. Campaigns use advertising strategically to persuade ... More

Contextualism in Normative Political Theory  

Sune Lægaard

Online publication date:
Oct 2016
Contextualism denotes a set of ideas about the importance of attention to context. The topic of the article is contextualism in normative political theory/philosophy, in relation to the ... More

Controlling Bureaucratic Corruption  

Ting Gong and Sunny L. Yang

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
Corruption is a complex social phenomenon. It refers to the abuse of entrusted power for private gain, but it may still mean different things to different people. The definition of ... More

Corporate Lobbying in Foreign Policy  

Amy Skonieczny

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
More Americans than ever before believe that money in politics weakens our democracy. Public opinion polls show that the number of people who believe that the country is run by a few big ... More

Corruption in African Politics  

Tom Lodge

Survey evidence indicates that political corruption is more prevalent in Africa than in any other global region, though there is also evidence of considerable variation between countries ... More

The Council of Ministers of the European Union  

Jeffrey Lewis

Online publication date:
May 2017
The Council of Ministers, officially known as the Council of the European Union (EU), is a single legal composition of national ministers who meet in policy-specific formations to ... More

Counterfactuals and Foreign Policy Analysis  

Richard Ned Lebow

Counterfactuals seek to alter some feature or event of the pass and by means of a chain of causal logic show how the present might, or would, be different. Counterfactual inquiry—or ... More

Coup-Proofing and Civil War  

Jun Koga Sudduth

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Political leaders face threats to their power from within and outside the regime. Leaders can be removed via a coup d’état undertaken by militaries that are part of the state apparatus. At ... More

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