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Catholic Church Advocacy and the Affordable Care Act  

Jeanine Kraybill

The American Catholic Church has a long history in health care. At the turn of 19th century, Catholic nuns began developing the United States’ first hospital and health care systems, ... More

Citizenship of the European Union  

Willem Maas

Online publication date:
Aug 2020
Citizenship is usually conceptualized as a unitary and exclusive relationship between an individual and a sovereign state; yet the European Union (EU) has developed the most advanced form ... More

Coalition Politics and Foreign Policy  

Sibel Oktay

Online publication date:
May 2017
Coalition governments are observed frequently in parliamentary systems. Approximately 70% of all governments in postwar Europe have been one type of coalition or another. Israel has never ... More

Croatia and the European Union  

Pero Maldini

Croatia’s accession to the European Union (EU) meant, in political terms, the recognition of its political and normative-institutional achievements in the establishment of a nation state ... More

Direct Democracy and LGBT Politics  

Daniel C. Lewis

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Groups and Identities, Political Institutions
While many landmark policies affecting LGBT rights have been determined by legislatures and courts, voters have also often played a more direct role in LGBT politics through direct ... More

Europe’s Supranational Courts and LGBT Rights  

M. Joel Voss

Europe has some of the most powerful human rights legal institutions in the world including two supranational human rights courts—the Council of Europe’s European Court of Human Rights and ... More

The Evolution of Same-Sex Marriage Policy in the United States  

Sarah Poggione

Online publication date:
Aug 2019
On June 26, 2015, the U.S. Supreme Court determined that same-sex couples have the right to marry, and newspapers across the country declared that gay couples could now exercise this right ... More

Gender, Race, and Political Representation in Latin America  

Jennifer M. Piscopo and Kristin N. Wylie

Online publication date:
Jun 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Groups and Identities, Political Institutions
Women, indigenous peoples, and Afro-descendant populations remain underrepresented in the national legislatures of Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking Latin America. The descriptive (or ... More

Gender-Sensitive Parliaments  

Sonia Palmieri

While women have succeeded in promoting a feminist agenda in some parliaments, the international research shows that this is not always possible, and accordingly, not a realistic ... More

Lebanon: A Military in Politics in a Divided Society  

Oren Barak

Since Lebanon’s independence in the mid-1940s, its military—the Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF)—has played a pivotal role in the country’s politics. The political role of the LAF in Lebanon ... More

LGBT and Queer Politics in the Commonwealth  

Matthew Waites

The Commonwealth is the international governmental organization of states that emerged from the British empire, and since 2000 it has emerged as a focus for contestation relating to the ... More

LGBT Military Service Policies in the United States  

Andrew Goodhart and Jami K. Taylor

For most of its history, the U.S. military has maintained a policy of exclusion toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people serving in uniform. The justifications for these ... More

Managing Ethnicity in African Politics  

Christof Hartmann

Online publication date:
Jan 2019
Political regulation of ethnicity has been a core dimension of state-building in Africa, and a set of different macro-political strategies was applied in African postcolonial states to deal ... More

National Secession  

Philip G. Roeder

National secession seeks to create a new sovereign state for a nation residing on its homeland that is currently located inside another sovereign state. This goal distinguishes national ... More

Nothing About Us Without Us: The UN Convention on The Rights of Persons with Disabilities  

Paul Harpur

Online publication date:
May 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Groups and Identities, Political Institutions
Persons with disabilities, the world’s largest minority group, have experienced oppression and have been excluded from participating in public affairs for most of human history. The United ... More

Party Movements  

Mildred A. Schwartz

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Party movements are organizations that have attributes of both political parties and social movements. Like parties, they desire a voice in the decisions of legislative bodies. Like social ... More

Political Recruitment and Candidate Selection in Latin America  

Peter M. Siavelis and Scott Morgenstern

Online publication date:
Sep 2020
Candidate recruitment and selection is a complex and opaque process that drives political outcomes and processes. Further, the process of candidate selection is notoriously difficult to ... More

The Politics and Effects of Religious Grievance  

David Muchlinski

Online publication date:
Sep 2019
Despite international guarantees to respect religious freedom, governments around the world often impose substantial restrictions on the abilities of some religious groups to openly ... More

The Politics of Language Education in Africa  

Russell H. Kaschula and Michael M. Kretzer

Language policies in sub-Saharan African nations emerge out of specific political, historical, socioeconomic, and linguistic conditions. Education plays a crucial role for all spheres of ... More

Regional Institutions and the European Union  

Arjan H. Schakel and Emanuele Massetti

Online publication date:
Aug 2020
European integration and regionalization have been parallel processes over the past five decades, leading to a multilevel governance system where decision-making powers are allocated across ... More

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