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Activism of Political Parties in Africa  

George M. Bob-Milliar

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Since the early 1990s, African states have been democratizing. Political parties now dominate the public spaces in many African democracies. The past 26 years have witnessed the growth and ... More

The African Union: Successes and Failures  

Thomas Kwasi Tieku

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
The African Union (AU), an international organization comprising all 54 independent states in Africa and Western Sahara, was established in May 2001 to, among other things, promote regional ... More

Aid, Political Conditionality, and Other International Efforts to Support Democracy in Africa  

Christine Hackenesch

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Support for democracy, human rights, and good governance reforms in Africa has become a prominent objective in engagement by European Union (EU) institutions, EU member states, and the ... More

The American Judicial Process and Why It Matters  

Lisa M. Holmes

Online publication date:
Mar 2020
The American judicial system is not a static, simple, or mechanical entity. Rather, it is a complex organization that is developed and staffed in response to changing caseload and societal ... More

Applying, Enforcing, and Implementing European Union Rules  

Gerda Falkner

Online publication date:
Apr 2020
Making decisions is a complex and often problem-ridden process in a union of almost 30 member states. Most political science research hence discusses aspects of either decision-making or ... More

Archives in the Study of Public Policy and Administration  

Grace Jaramillo

Archives, including primary documents such as meeting minutes, memoranda, white papers, blueprints, drafts for laws, and acts, are a crucial part of a consistent research inquiry that ... More

Arrow’s Theorem  

Conal Duddy and Ashley Piggins

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
Kenneth Arrow’s “impossibility” theorem is rightly considered to be a landmark result in economic theory. It is a far-reaching result with implications not just for economics but for ... More

Asylum Policy and European Union Politics  

Ariadna Ripoll Servent and Natascha Zaun

Online publication date:
Mar 2020
Since the crisis of 2015/2016, asylum has become the focus of attention in the European Union (EU). The right to seek refuge raises issues of sovereignty and control of the territory; ... More

Austria and the European Union  

Paul Luif

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Political Institutions, World Politics
Austria was occupied at the end of World War II by the four Allies, but in contrast to Germany the four powers left in 1955—the condition being its declaration of permanent neutrality, on ... More

Autocracy  

Erica Frantz

Dictatorships have dominated global politics for hundreds of years, from the pharaohs of Egypt to the absolute monarchs of Europe. Though democracy has since spread to much of the world, ... More

The Baltic States in the European Union  

Tanel Kerikmäe, Archil Chochia, and Max Atallah

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Political Institutions, World Politics
Integration with the European Union has been far less distressing for the three Baltic States than for numerous other accessing countries owing to their strong societal impetus to (re)join ... More

Belgium and the European Union  

Edith Drieskens

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Belgium is one of the six founding members of European integration, but it is often seen as a special one. In both policy and research, the country is widely known as the “heart of Europe.” ... More

The BRICS Countries and the European Union  

Bas Hooijmaaijers and Stephan Keukeleire

Online publication date:
Mar 2020
Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS) have, since the beginning of the 21st century, gained greater influence in global political and economic affairs and, since 2006, also ... More

Bureaucracy in Latin America  

John Polga-Hecimovich

Online publication date:
Sep 2019
The bureaucracy is a central body in the effective functioning of democracy and oversight of the rule of law, and knowledge of how public agencies interact with politics and effect policy ... More

The Capacity of Decentralization to Promote Democracy and Development in Africa  

Amy R. Poteete

The multifaceted nature of decentralization, democracy, and development renders relationships among them ambivalent and conditional. It is certainly possible to decentralize in ways that ... More

Catholic Church Advocacy and the Affordable Care Act  

Jeanine Kraybill

The American Catholic Church has a long history in health care. At the turn of 19th century, Catholic nuns began developing the United States’ first hospital and health care systems, ... More

Change and Continuity in African Electoral Politics Since Multipartyism  

Jaimie Bleck and Nicolas van de Walle

Online publication date:
Jul 2019
Between 1990 and 2015, 184 multicandidate presidential elections and 207 multiparty legislative elections were held in some 46 countries of sub-Saharan Africa. What does the routinization ... More

Citizenship of the European Union  

Willem Maas

Online publication date:
Aug 2020
Citizenship is usually conceptualized as a unitary and exclusive relationship between an individual and a sovereign state; yet the European Union (EU) has developed the most advanced form ... More

Clientelism in Latin American Politics  

Ezequiel Gonzalez-Ocantos and Virginia Oliveros

Online publication date:
Aug 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Political Institutions
Clientelism is a type of nonprogrammatic linkage strategy that political parties deploy to win elections. Specifically, the concept refers to the personalized and discretionary exchange of ... More

Climate and Environmental Crises  

Victor Galaz

Climate change is increasingly being framed as a “climate crisis.” Such a crisis could be viewed both to unfold in the climate system, as well as to be induced by it in diverse areas of ... More

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