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Accountability and Responsibility  

Robert Gregory

Accountability and responsibility are related ideas that are central to political, constitutional, and institutional arrangements in Western liberal democracies. However, political elites ... More

The Advocacy Coalition Framework  

Paúl Cisneros

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics. Please check back later for the full article. Paul ... More

Advocacy Coalitions in Foreign Policy  

Jonathan Pierce and Katherine Hicks

Online publication date:
May 2017
The advocacy coalition framework (ACF) was developed to explain policy processes where contentious coalitions of actors seek to translate competing belief systems into public policy. ... More

Agenda Setting and the Policy Process: Focusing Events  

Thomas A. Birkland

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics. Please check back later for the full article. Agenda ... More

Arms Control and Arms Reductions in Foreign Policy  

Harald Mueller

Arms control is a strategy by governments to overcome the security dilemma with institutionalized cooperation. It comes in three versions, arms control proper, with stability as the main ... More

Civil Service Systems  

Vainius Smalskys and Jolanta Urbanovič

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
Civil service consists of civil servants and their activity when implementing the assigned functions and decisions made by politicians. In other words, it is a system of civil servants who ... More

Climate Policy in European Union Politics  

Tom Delreux and Frauke Ohler

The fight against climate change has become a major area of action for the European Union (EU), both at the European and the international level. EU climate policy has gained importance ... More

Comitology: Controlling Everyday Rule-Making in the European Union  

Jens Blom-Hansen

Rules issued by the European Commission, based on powers delegated by the Council of Ministers and the European Parliament, constitute the vast majority of all EU rules. They regulate the ... More

The Common Foreign and Security Policy  

Hylke Dijkstra and Sophie Vanhoonacker

Online publication date:
Jan 2017
The member states of the European Union (EU) coordinate, define, and implement foreign policy in the context of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). This policy area, often ... More

The Common Security and Defense Policy  

Simon Duke

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
The European Union’s Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) is scarcely two decades old, yet a considerable and diverse body of literature has emerged during this time. CSDP can best be ... More

Comparative Public Policy  

Guillaume Fontaine

Comparative public policy (CPP) is a multidisciplinary enterprise aimed at policy learning through lesson drawing and theory building or testing. We argue that CPP faces the challenge of ... More

Corruption in African Politics  

Tom Lodge

Survey evidence indicates that political corruption is more prevalent in Africa than in any other global region, though there is also evidence of considerable variation between countries ... More

Courts and Social Policy  

Jeb Barnes

Online publication date:
Oct 2016
How do courts affect social policy? Answering this question is deceptively complex. Part of the challenge stems from the sheer scope of contemporary judicial policymaking, particularly in ... More

Deliberative Democracy and Political Decision Making  

Jon Green, Jonathon Kingzette, and Michael Neblo

Defined expansively as the exchange of politically relevant justifications, political deliberation occurs at many sites in the democratic system. It is also performed by several different ... More

Diplomacy in Foreign Policy  

Kenneth Weisbrode

Diplomacy’s role in foreign policy is hampered by multiple understandings of what diplomacy is and does. A broad definition of diplomacy holds that it encompasses more than the promotion ... More

Disproportionate Policy Response  

Moshe Maor

Online publication date:
Jan 2017
Disproportionate policy response is understood to be a lack of ‘fit’ or balance between the costs of a public policy and the benefits derived from this policy, and between policy ends and ... More

Electoral Systems and Policy Outcomes  

Stephanie J. Rickard

Policies as diverse as tariffs, exchange rates, and unemployment insurance vary across democratic countries. In an attempt to explain this cross-national variation, scholars have turned to ... More

Emotions and Foreign Policy  

Thomas Dolan

Online publication date:
May 2018
Increasingly, scholars are recognizing the influences of emotion on foreign policy decision-making processes. Not merely feelings, emotions are sets of sentimental, physiological, and ... More

Energy Policy  

Jale Tosun

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Energy policy comprises rules concerning energy sources; energy efficiency; energy prices; energy from abroad; energy infrastructure; and climate and environmental aspects of energy ... More

Enlargement Policy and European Union Politics  

Eli Gateva

Enlargement has always been an essential part of the European integration. Each enlargement round has left its mark on the integration project. However, it was the expansion of the ... More

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