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Activism of Political Parties in Africa  

George M. Bob-Milliar

Since the early 1990s, African states have been democratizing. Political parties now dominate the public spaces in many African democracies. The past 26 years have witnessed the growth and ... More

The Advocacy Coalition Framework  

Paúl Cisneros

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics. Please check back later for the full article. Paul ... More

Attitudes Toward Women and the Influence of Gender on Political Decision Making  

Mary-Kate Lizotte

There is a great deal of research, spanning social psychology, sociology, and political science, on politically relevant attitudes toward women and the influence of gender on individual’s ... More

Candidates and Voting Choice  

Ian McAllister

Online publication date:
Apr 2016
The role of candidates in shaping voting choice has generated much research—and at least as much controversy—since modern electoral behavior research began in the 1960s. Much of the ... More

Catholic Church Advocacy in Latin America  

Christopher W. Hale

Historically, the Catholic Church in Latin America has supported conservative interests. It legitimized Spanish colonial rule and sided with traditionalist elites following Latin American ... More

The Catholic Hierarchy's Political Role: A Structural Analysis  

Timothy A. Byrnes

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
The key to understanding the political role of the Catholic hierarchy is acknowledging that the leadership of the Catholic Church is remarkably well suited to participate at all levels of ... More

The Changing Nature of Political Party Membership  

Susan E. Scarrow

Online publication date:
Jan 2017
Party membership has long been an important channel for political participation in many countries. Strong membership organizations have helped parties win elections and stay connected with ... More

Citizens and Political Sophistication  

Henrik Oscarsson and Lauri Rapeli

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Political sophistication refers to the role of expertise and the use of information in the forming of political judgments. Citizens in a democracy need a sufficient level of ... More

Corruption in African Politics  

Tom Lodge

Survey evidence indicates that political corruption is more prevalent in Africa than in any other global region, though there is also evidence of considerable variation between countries ... More

Counterfactuals and Foreign Policy Analysis  

Richard Ned Lebow

Counterfactuals seek to alter some feature or event of the pass and by means of a chain of causal logic show how the present might, or would, be different. Counterfactual inquiry—or ... More

Dead Ends and New Paths in the Study of Economic Voting  

Timothy Hellwig and Dani M. Marinova

Online publication date:
Jan 2017
Connections between the economy and vote are commonly invoked to evaluate political accountability in representative democracies. A principal motivation for studying economic voting lies ... More

Decision Strategies in Politics  

Richard R. Lau

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
A decision strategy is a set of mental and physical operations that a decision maker uses to reach a choice among two or more alternatives. Once the alternatives have been identified, a ... More

The Decision to Vote or to Abstain  

Elisabeth Gidengil

Why voters turn out on Election Day has eluded a straightforward explanation. Rational choice theorists have proposed a parsimonious model, but its logical implication is that hardly ... More

Democratic Norms and Religion  

Gizem Arikan and Pazit Ben-Nun Bloom

In research on religiosity and support for democratic norms, two major debates stand out: The first concerns whether some religious traditions, such as Islam or Orthodox Christianity, are ... More

Do Campaigns Make a Difference?  

Paul Whiteley

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
The study of political campaigns is very varied in the political science literature. On the one hand, campaigns can involve groups of citizens working together on a local issue of concern ... More

Don't Expose Yourself: Discretionary Exposure to Political Information  

Gaurav Sood and Yphtach Lelkes

The news media have been disrupted. Broadcasting has given way to narrowcasting, editorial control to control by “friends” and personalization algorithms, and a few reputable producers to ... More

Dynamic Process Tracing Methods in the Study of Political Decision Making  

Philip Chen

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Understanding how individuals make political decisions in a complex and ever-changing world requires recognition of the dynamic nature of the environment, as well as theoretical and ... More

The Economic Voter Decides  

Mary Stegmaier, Michael S. Lewis-Beck, and Lincoln Brown

Online publication date:
May 2019
In democracies, we elect our political leaders by choosing among a rival set of candidates or parties. What makes us pick one over all the others? Do we carefully weigh the platforms of ... More

Emotions in Foreign Policy Decision Making  

Rose McDermott

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
There are lots of ways that emotions have been studied in psychology and various ways that their use has been examined in the context of foreign policy. Perhaps one of the most useful ways ... More

E-Participation  

Marta Cantijoch and Rachel Gibson

Online publication date:
Jan 2019
The study of e-participation is a young and growing discipline in which controversies are vibrant. One of these is the lack of a widely accepted definition of “e-participation.” Online ... More

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