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date: 10 December 2022

Gender in Organizationslocked

Gender in Organizationslocked

  • Karyssa Courey, Karyssa CoureyDepartment of Psychology, Rice University
  • Makai Ruffin, Makai RuffinDepartment of Psychology, Rice University
  • Mikki Hebl, Mikki HeblDepartment of Psychology, Rice University
  • Dillon Stewart, Dillon StewartDepartment of Psychology, Rice University
  • Meridith Townsend, Meridith TownsendDepartment of Psychology, Rice University
  • Leilani Seged, Leilani SegedDepartment of Psychology, Rice University
  • Jordyn Williams, Jordyn WilliamsRice University
  • Cedric Patterson, Cedric PattersonDepartment of Psychology
  • Sara MeiSara MeiDepartment of Psychology, Rice University
  •  and Eden KingEden KingDepartment of Psychology, Rice University


In the U.S., women represent an abysmally small number of Fortune 500 chief executive officers (CEOs) positions, and are generally absent from some of the highest status occupations and the highest echelons of leadership in almost every aspect of society. Scientific research has been brought to bear on this social problem, with the goal of building understanding, awareness, and change. In particular, psychological theory and evidence provide compelling documentation of the challenges that women encounter upon entering and navigating the workplace. The primary theoretical rationales used to explain gender disparities and challenges include social learning theory, social role theory, role congruity theory, lack of fit model, ambivalent sexism theory, and the stereotype content model. These theories emphasize the perceived misalignment between expectations of ideal workers or leaders and those of ideal women as a driver of workplace gender inequities that include women’s disadvantages in educational experiences, access to jobs and pay, leadership positions, sociobiological patterns, and caregiving demands. Workplace gender inequities in these areas can be remedied by implementing strategies for positive change such as empowering women, valuing feminine characteristics, creating equal opportunities, and changing workplace and societal cultures.


  • Organizational and Institutional Psychology
  • Psychology and Other Disciplines
  • Social Psychology

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