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Blood Pressure as a Biomarker in Gerontological Research  

Thomas M. Hess, Erica L. O'Brien, and Claire M. Growney

Blood pressure is a frequently used measure in studies of adult development and aging, serving as a biomarker for health, physiological reactivity, and task engagement. Importantly, it has ... More

Boris Ananiev’s Theory of Self-Determination of Human Development  

Irina Mironenko

Ananiev’s approach shares the Activity Theory (AT) paradigm, dominant in Soviet psychology. Ananiev builds on the main fundamentals of the AT paradigm, considering psyche as a special ... More

Brain Basis of Blindsight  

Holly Bridge

The sensation of vision arises from the detection of photons of light at the eye, but in order to produce the percept of the world, extensive regions of the brain are required to process ... More

Brain Effects of Environmental Enrichment and Deprivation  

Bryan Kolb

Online publication date:
May 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Biological Foundations of Psychology
The role of experience in brain organization and function can be studied by systematically manipulating developmental experiences. The most common protocols use extremes in experiential ... More

Dyslexia  

Linda Siegel

Dyslexia, or a reading disability, occurs when an individual has great difficulty at the level of word reading and decoding. Comprehension of text, writing, and spelling are also affected. ... More

Enduring Debates on Psychology and Language in the 20th Century  

Trevor A. Harley

Research in the psychology of language has been dogged by some enduring controversies, many of which continue to divide researchers. Furthermore, language research has been riven by too ... More

Human Movement, Kinesthesia, and Dance  

Roger Smith

There is intense contemporary public as well as professional psychological interest in bodily movement, gesture, and the subjective experience of movement. This has a background in ... More

Hunger  

Neil E. Rowland

Online publication date:
May 2020
Hunger is a specific and compelling sensation, sometimes arising from internal signals of nutrient depletion but more often modulated by numerous environmental variables including taste or ... More

Imprinting as Social Learning  

Timothy Johnston

Online publication date:
Jan 2020
Imprinting is a form of rapid, supposedly irreversible learning that results from exposure to an object during a specific period (a critical or sensitive period) during early life and ... More

Inflammation As a Biomarker Method in Lifespan Developmental Methodology  

Stephanie J. Wilson, Alex Woody, and Janice K. Kiecolt-Glaser

Inflammatory markers provide invaluable tools for studying health and disease across the lifespan. Inflammation is central to the immune system’s response to infection and wounding; it also ... More

Integrated Theories of Biological Aging  

Conscience P. Bwiza, Jyung Mean Son, and Changhan Lee

Online publication date:
Jul 2019
Aging is a progressive process with multiple biological processes collectively deteriorating with time, ultimately causing loss of physiological functions necessary for survival and ... More

Kindling  

G. Campbell Teskey

The kindling phenomenon is a form of sensitization where, with repetition, epileptiform discharges become progressively longer and behavioral seizures eventually appear and then become more ... More

Methodology for Twin Studies of Aging  

Michael J. Lyons, Chandra A. Reynolds, William S. Kremen, and Carol E. Franz

Online publication date:
Jan 2019
The rapidly increasing number of people age 65 and older around the world has important implications for public health and social policy, making it imperative to understand the factors that ... More

Nature and Nurture as an Enduring Tension in the History of Psychology  

Hunter Honeycutt

Online publication date:
Sep 2019
Nature–nurture is a dichotomous way of thinking about the origins of human (and animal) behavior and development, where “nature” refers to native, inborn, causal factors that function ... More

Neurocognitive Aging and Functional Connectivity Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

Hana Burianová

Determining the mechanisms that underlie neurocognitive aging, such as compensation or dedifferentiation, and facilitating the development of effective strategies for cognitive improvement ... More

Physical Activity and Inactivity Impacts on Cognitive and Emotional Functioning in Later Life  

Patrick D. Gajewski and Michael Falkenstein

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
Healthy aging is associated with changes in sensory, motor, cognitive, and emotional functions. Such changes depend on various factors. In particular, physical activity not only improves ... More

Psychological Stress and Cellular Aging  

Idan Shalev and Waylon J. Hastings

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
Stress is a multistage process during which an organism perceives, interprets, and responds to threatening environmental stimuli. Physiological activity in the nervous, endocrine, and ... More

The Medicalization of Stress  

Vanessa L. Burrows

Online publication date:
Jun 2020
Stress has not always been accepted as a legitimate medical condition. The biomedical concept stress grew from tangled roots of varied psychosomatic theories of health that examined (a) the ... More

Thirst  

Neil E. Rowland

Online publication date:
Jul 2020
Thirst is a specific and compelling sensation, often arising from internal signals of dehydration but modulated by many environmental variables. There are several historical landmarks in ... More

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