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A Review and Reappraisal of the Default Network in Normal Aging and Dementia  

Jessica R. Andrews-Hanna, Matthew D. Grilli, and Muireann Irish

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
The brain’s default network (DN) has received considerable interest in the context of so-called “normal” and pathological aging. Findings have generally been couched in support of a ... More

The Role of Mental Processes in Elite Sports Performance  

Joan N. Vickers and A. Mark Williams

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
Considerable debate has arisen about whether brain activity in elite athletes is characterized by an overall quieting, or neural efficiency in brain processes, or whether elite performance ... More

The Roles of Psychological Stress, Physical Activity, and Dietary Modifications on Cardiovascular Health Implications  

Chun-Jung Huang, Matthew J. McAllister, and Aaron L. Slusher

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Psychological stress disorders, such as depression and chronic anxiety contribute to increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Acute psychological and physical stress ... More

Safety at Work  

Gudela Grote

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
Psychological research on safety at work aims at understanding people’s attitudes and behaviors in relation to hazards for their own and others’ health and well-being. Important ... More

Schema Therapy With Older Adults  

A.C. Videler

Online publication date:
Sep 2018
Schema therapy has evolved since the late 1980s as an efficacious and increasingly widely used psychotherapeutic treatment for personality disorders and many other complex disorders that ... More

Schools and Approaches to Psychotherapy  

Kathleen Someah, Christopher Edwards, and Larry E. Beutler

There are many approaches to psychotherapy, commonly called “schools” or “theories.” These schools range from psychoanalytic, to variations of insight- and conflict-based approaches, ... More

Scientific Studies of Dreams and Dreaming in the Late 19th and Early 20th Centuries  

Giorgia Morgese

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
In the second half of the 19th century, the study of the phenomenon of the dream was undertaken with “scientific” method, by physicians, physiologists, and psychiatrists before the birth ... More

Screening Substance Use and Misuse Among Middle and High School Students  

Lori K. Holleran Steiker

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
This article provides an overview of screening adolescents for substance use, misuse, and substance use disorders. It covers the practical and empirical considerations when working with ... More

Self and Identity  

Sanaz Talaifar and William Swann

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Active and stored mental representations of the self include both global and specific qualities as well as conscious and nonconscious qualities. Semantic and episodic memory both ... More

Self-Talk in Sport and Performance  

Judy L. Van Raalte and Andrew Vincent

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Self-talk has been studied from the earliest days of research in experimental psychology. In sport psychology, the cognitive revolution of the 1970s led researchers and practitioners to ... More

The Social Brain Hypothesis and Human Evolution  

Robin I. M. Dunbar

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Primate societies are unusually complex compared to those of other animals, and the need to manage such complexity is the main explanation for the fact that primates have unusually large ... More

Social Categorization  

Craig McGarty

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Categorization is a process whereby we make sense of the world around us by separating things into different classes or groups. When we learn which categories that objects belong to, we ... More

Social Comparison  

Zlatan Krizan

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Social comparison activity is one of the most important spheres of human functioning; it is necessary for appraising where one stands within his or her community and for establishing ... More

Social Gerontology Theories: Past, Present, and Future  

Jill Suitor, Megan Gilligan, Marissa Rurka, Yifei Hou, and Gulcin Con

Online publication date:
Jan 2019
Theories of social gerontology have progressed from a focus on individuals’ later-life decline to theories that emphasize the intra- and interindividual variability of later-life ... More

Social Isolation and Loneliness in Old Age  

Clemens Tesch-Roemer and Oliver Huxhold

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
Social isolation refers to the objective lack of social integration. Loneliness, in contrast, refers to the perceived lack of social integration. Loneliness has serious consequences for ... More

Social Markers in Language and Speech  

Margaret Jane Pitts and Cindy Gallois

Online publication date:
May 2019
Social markers in language and speech are cues conveyed through verbal and nonverbal means that serve to identify individuals to the groups to which they belong. Social markers can be ... More

Social Participation and Volunteering in Later Life  

Nancy Morrow-Howell, Yi Wang, and Takashi Amano

Online publication date:
Jan 2019
Social participation is a key element of a healthy later life; and from a life course perspective, social participation declines in later life, due to separation from employment and ... More

Social Psychology and Language  

Susan Baker, Bernadette Watson, and Cindy Gallois

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Psychology. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Social Relationships Across Adulthood and Old Age  

Cornelia Wrzus and Jenny Wagner

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
Over the entire life span, social relationships are essential ingredients of human life. Social relationships describe regular interactions with other people over a certain period and ... More

Sociocultural Aspects of Sport Injury and Recovery  

Diane M. Wiese-Bjornstal

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
The sociocultural aspects of sport injury and recovery include the broad landscape of social beliefs, climates, processes, cultures, institutions, and societies that surround the full ... More

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