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Life Space in Older Adults  

Markus Wettstein, Hans-Werner Wahl, and Michael Schwenk

When referring to life space, researchers usually mean the area in which individuals move in their everyday lives. Life space can be measured based on different approaches, by means of ... More

Longitudinal, Cross-Sectional, and Sequential Designs in Lifespan Developmental Psychology  

Susan Krauss Whitbourne

Online publication date:
Jan 2019
Research methods in lifespan development include single-factor designs that either follow a single cohort of individuals over time or compare age groups at a single time point. The two ... More

Memory Rehabilitation in Healthy Aging  

Nicole D. Anderson

Healthy aging is accompanied by decrements in episodic memory and working memory. Significant efforts have therefore been made to augment episodic and working memory in healthy older ... More

Metamemory and Cognitive Aging  

Christopher Hertzog and Taylor Curley

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
Metamemory is defined as cognitions about memory and related processes. Related terms in the literature include metacognition, self-evaluation, memory self-efficacy, executive function, ... More

Neurocognitive Aging and Brain Signal Complexity  

Anthony Randal McIntosh

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
Brain organization can be measured across multiple spatial and temporal scales where each scale affects the other in the emergent functions that are known as cognition. As a complex ... More

Neurocognitive Aging and Functional Connectivity Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

Hana Burianová

Determining the mechanisms that underlie neurocognitive aging, such as compensation or dedifferentiation, and facilitating the development of effective strategies for cognitive improvement ... More

Object Perception  

Scott P. Johnson

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
Visual scenes tend to be very complex: a multitude of overlapping surfaces varying in shape, color, texture, and depth relative to the observer. Yet most observers effortlessly perceive ... More

Physical Activity and Inactivity Impacts on Cognitive and Emotional Functioning in Later Life  

Patrick D. Gajewski and Michael Falkenstein

Healthy aging is associated with changes in sensory, motor, cognitive, and emotional functions. Such changes depend on various factors. In particular, physical activity not only improves ... More

Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Cognition  

Jennifer L. Etnier

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
There is substantial interest in identifying the behavioral means by which to improve cognitive performance. Recent research and commercial ventures have focused on cognitive training ... More

Prospective Memory and Cognitive Aging  

Simon J. Haines, Jill Talley Shelton, Julie D. Henry, Gill Terrett, Thomas Vorwerk, and Peter G. Rendell

Tasks that involve remembering to carry out future intentions (such as remembering to attend an appointment), and the cognitive processes that enable the completion of such tasks (such as ... More

Psychological Responses to Scarcity  

Jiaying Zhao and Brandon M. Tomm

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Scarcity is the condition of having insufficient resources to cope with demands. This condition presents significant challenges to the human cognitive system. For example, having limited ... More

A Review and Reappraisal of the Default Network in Normal Aging and Dementia  

Jessica R. Andrews-Hanna, Matthew D. Grilli, and Muireann Irish

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
The brain’s default network (DN) has received considerable interest in the context of so-called “normal” and pathological aging. Findings have generally been couched in support of a ... More

The Role of Mental Processes in Elite Sports Performance  

Joan N. Vickers and A. Mark Williams

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
Considerable debate has arisen about whether brain activity in elite athletes is characterized by an overall quieting, or neural efficiency in brain processes, or whether elite performance ... More

The Social Brain Hypothesis and Human Evolution  

Robin I. M. Dunbar

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Primate societies are unusually complex compared to those of other animals, and the need to manage such complexity is the main explanation for the fact that primates have unusually large ... More

Spatial Development  

Jeffrey J. Lockman, Nicholas E. Fears, and Emily A. Lewis

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Spatial ability is manifest across different psychological domains, including perception, action, and cognition. The development of spatial understanding originates in the ... More

Specific Language Impairment  

Laurence B. Leonard

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have a significant deficit in their ability to acquire language that cannot be attributed to intellectual disability, neurological damage, ... More

Speech Comprehension and Cognition in Adult Aging  

Nicole D. Ayasse, Alexis R. Johns, and Arthur Wingfield

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
The comprehension of spoken language is a complex skill that requires the listener to map the acoustic input onto the meaningful units of speech (phonemes, syllables, and words). At the ... More

Surgical Performance From a Psychological Perspective  

Aidan Moran, Nick Sevdalis, and Lauren Wallace

At first glance, there are certain similarities between performance in surgery and that in competitive sports. Clearly, both require exceptional gross and fine motor ability and effective ... More

Temporal Dynamics of Prospective Memory (Event-Related Potentials)  

Robert West

Life is filled with goals or intentions that people hope to realize. Some of these are rather mundane (e.g., remembering to purchase a key ingredient for a recipe when stopping at the ... More

Theoretical Perspectives on Age Differences in Brain Activation: HAROLD, PASA, CRUNCH—How Do They STAC Up?  

Sara B. Festini, Laura Zahodne, and Patricia A. Reuter-Lorenz

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
Cognitive neuroimaging studies often report that older adults display more activation of neural networks relative to younger adults, referred to as overactivation. Greater or more ... More

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