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Group Processes  

Charles Stangor

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Group process refers to the behaviors of the members of small working groups (usually between three and twelve members) as they engage in decision-making and task performance. ... More

Habit Formation and Behavior Change  

Benjamin Gardner and Amanda L. Rebar

Within psychology, the term habit refers to a process whereby contexts prompt action automatically, through activation of mental context–action associations learned through prior ... More

Home-Based Care and Primary Care Settings for Delivery of Geropsychology Services to Older Persons  

Srijana Shrestha

Online publication date:
Jan 2019
Despite high rates of mental illnesses, older adults face multiple barriers in accessing mental health care. Primary care clinics, and home- and community-based senior-serving agencies are ... More

Human Aggression  

Christopher Groves and Craig A. Anderson

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
This chapter reviews the history of modern psychological inquiry into human aggression and the development of aggression theory over time. Definitions of aggression-related phenomena are ... More

Identity Development in Adolescence and Adulthood  

Jane Kroger

Psychoanalyst Erik Erikson was the first professional to describe and use the concept of ego identity in his writings on what constitutes healthy personality development for every ... More

Immigration, Migration, and Culture  

Victoria M. Esses

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Migration is the movement of people from one location to another, either within a country (internal migration between cities or regions) or between countries (international migration). ... More

Justice in Teams  

Vincente Martínez-Tur and Carolina Moliner

Online publication date:
Jan 2017
Traditionally, justice in teams refers to a specific climate—called justice climate—describing shared perceptions about how the team as a whole is treated. Justice at the individual level ... More

Marxist Influences in Psychology  

Tuomas Laine-Frigren

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
Marxist ideas influenced and inspired psychological thinking and practice in the 20th century in a range of ways. In different parts of the world, unique versions of Marxist psychology ... More

Motivation in Sport and Performance  

Glyn C. Roberts, Christina G. L. Nerstad, and P. Nicolas Lemyre

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
Motivation is the largest single topic in psychology, with at least 32 theories that attempt to explain why people are or are not motivated to achieve. Within sport psychology research, ... More

New Directions in Theories of Emotion and Aging  

Joseph A. Mikels and Nathaniel A. Young

Online publication date:
Dec 2018
The adult life span is characterized as a time of divergent trajectories. It is a time of compounding losses (such as physical, sensory, and cognitive declines) and is also a time of ... More

The Origin of Psychology in the Humanities  

Sven Hroar Klempe

The term “psychology” was applied for the first time in the 16th century. Yet the most interesting examples appeared in three different contexts. The Croatian poet and humanist Marko ... More

Parent–Child Relations and Their Importance for Older Adults  

Kyungmin Kim and Yijung Kim

Online publication date:
Dec 2018
The parent-child relationship is one of the most significant social relations for many individuals. In particular, intergenerational ties to adult children often remain as one of the main ... More

Population Aging and Globalization: The Impact of Cultural and Social Change  

Christopher Phillipson

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
Globalization has become an influential force in the construction of older age, notably in the framing of social and economic policies designed to manage and regulate demographic change. ... More

Prejudice  

John F. Dovidio, Fabian M. H. Schellhaas, and Adam R. Pearson

Online publication date:
May 2019
Prejudice is an attitude toward a social group and its members that can be expressed as either a negative or positive (e.g., paternalistic) evaluation and creates or maintains hierarchical ... More

Psychological Considerations for Physical Activity Participants With Intellectual Disabilities  

Yeshayahu Hutzler and Joelle Almosni

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
Persons with intellectual disability (ID) exhibit reduced levels of participation in recreational and habitual physical activity, which leads to an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases ... More

Psychological Responses to Scarcity  

Jiaying Zhao and Brandon M. Tomm

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Scarcity is the condition of having insufficient resources to cope with demands. This condition presents significant challenges to the human cognitive system. For example, having limited ... More

Psychology and Oppression  

Wahbie Long

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
Psychology has always been a discipline immersed in the social and political currents of the day. At the level of psychological theory—whether one considers early pioneers such as Freud, ... More

Religion and Spirituality in Sport  

Ivo Jirásek

Online publication date:
Dec 2018
Religion, spirituality, and sport is an increasingly popular discipline in the sport psychology framework, often based on one’s own faith and religious beliefs. The spiritual dimension of ... More

Self and Identity  

Sanaz Talaifar and William Swann

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Active and stored mental representations of the self include both global and specific qualities as well as conscious and nonconscious qualities. Semantic and episodic memory both contribute ... More

Self-Talk in Sport and Performance  

Judy L. Van Raalte and Andrew Vincent

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Self-talk has been studied from the earliest days of research in experimental psychology. In sport psychology, the cognitive revolution of the 1970s led researchers and practitioners to ... More

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