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Psychological Responses to Scarcity  

Jiaying Zhao and Brandon M. Tomm

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Scarcity is the condition of having insufficient resources to cope with demands. This condition presents significant challenges to the human cognitive system. For example, having limited ... More

A Review and Reappraisal of the Default Network in Normal Aging and Dementia  

Jessica R. Andrews-Hanna, Matthew D. Grilli, and Muireann Irish

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
The brain’s default network (DN) has received considerable interest in the context of so-called “normal” and pathological aging. Findings have generally been couched in support of a ... More

The Role of Mental Processes in Elite Sports Performance  

Joan N. Vickers and A. Mark Williams

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
Considerable debate has arisen about whether brain activity in elite athletes is characterized by an overall quieting, or neural efficiency in brain processes, or whether elite performance ... More

The Social Brain Hypothesis and Human Evolution  

Robin I. M. Dunbar

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Primate societies are unusually complex compared to those of other animals, and the need to manage such complexity is the main explanation for the fact that primates have unusually large ... More

Spatial Development  

Jeffrey J. Lockman, Nicholas E. Fears, and Emily A. Lewis

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Spatial ability is manifest across different psychological domains, including perception, action, and cognition. The development of spatial understanding originates in the perception-action ... More

Specific Language Impairment  

Laurence B. Leonard

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have a significant deficit in their ability to acquire language that cannot be attributed to intellectual disability, neurological damage, ... More

Speech Comprehension and Cognition in Adult Aging  

Nicole D. Ayasse, Alexis R. Johns, and Arthur Wingfield

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
The comprehension of spoken language is a complex skill that requires the listener to map the acoustic input onto the meaningful units of speech (phonemes, syllables, and words). At the ... More

Surgical Performance From a Psychological Perspective  

Aidan Moran, Nick Sevdalis, and Lauren Wallace

At first glance, there are certain similarities between performance in surgery and that in competitive sports. Clearly, both require exceptional gross and fine motor ability and effective ... More

Temporal Dynamics of Prospective Memory (Event-Related Potentials)  

Robert West

Life is filled with goals or intentions that people hope to realize. Some of these are rather mundane (e.g., remembering to purchase a key ingredient for a recipe when stopping at the ... More

Theoretical Perspectives on Age Differences in Brain Activation: HAROLD, PASA, CRUNCH—How Do They STAC Up?  

Sara B. Festini, Laura Zahodne, and Patricia A. Reuter-Lorenz

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
Cognitive neuroimaging studies often report that older adults display more activation of neural networks relative to younger adults, referred to as overactivation. Greater or more ... More

Visual Attention With Cognitive Aging  

David J. Madden and Zachary A. Monge

Age-related decline occurs in several aspects of fluid, speed-dependent cognition, particularly those related to attention. Empirical research on visual attention has determined that ... More

Visual Development  

Janette Atkinson

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Human visual development is a complex dynamic psychological/neurobiological process, being part of the developing systems for cognition, action, and attention. This article reviews current ... More

Vygotsky and the Cultural-Historical Approach to Human Development  

Ekaterina Zavershneva and René van der Veer

Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky (real name Lev Simkhovich Vygodsky; Orsha 1896–Moscow 1934) was a Russian psychologist who created cultural-historical theory, which proved influential in ... More

Wisdom Across Cultures  

Igor Grossmann and Franki Kung

The concept of wisdom is ancient and deeply embedded in the cultural history of humanity. However, only since 1980s have psychologists begun to study it scientifically. Taking a culturally ... More

Working Memory and Cognitive Aging  

Paul Verhaeghen

Working memory as a temporary buffer for cognitive processing is an essential part of the cognitive system. Its capacity and select aspects of its functioning are age sensitive, more so for ... More

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