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The Legacy of Recapitulation Theory in the History of Developmental Psychology  

Donna Varga

Online publication date:
Apr 2020
From the late 1800s, under the auspices of G. Stanley Hall and then independently by others, investigations of children’s development were undertaken from the perspective of recapitulation ... More

Marxist Influences in Psychology  

Tuomas Laine-Frigren

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
Marxist ideas influenced and inspired psychological thinking and practice in the 20th century in a range of ways. In different parts of the world, unique versions of Marxist psychology ... More

Melancholia and Depression  

Åsa Jansson

Depression is defined in diagnostic literature as a mood disorder characterized by depressed mood, loss of interest or pleasure in activities, significant changes in weight, insomnia or ... More

Milgram’s Experiments on Obedience to Authority  

Stephen Gibson

Stanley Milgram’s experiments on obedience to authority are among the most influential and controversial social scientific studies ever conducted. They remain staples of introductory ... More

Mind Cure and Mental Therapeutics in the Late 19th-Century United States  

David Schmit

Mind cure, or mental healing, was a late 19th-century American healing movement that extolled a metaphysical mind-over-matter approach to the treatment of illness. Emerging in New England ... More

Robert White and the Study of Lives  

Raymond E. Fancher

Online publication date:
Apr 2020
Robert Winthrop White was an important psychologist and personality researcher at Harvard University during the middle years of the 1900s. First as a student and then chief lieutenant and ... More

Nature and Nurture as an Enduring Tension in the History of Psychology  

Hunter Honeycutt

Nature–nurture is a dichotomous way of thinking about the origins of human (and animal) behavior and development, where “nature” refers to native, inborn, causal factors that function ... More

The Origin of Psychology in the Humanities  

Sven Hroar Klempe

The term “psychology” was applied for the first time in the 16th century. Yet the most interesting examples appeared in three different contexts. The Croatian poet and humanist Marko ... More

Professionalization of Psychology in the Nordic Countries  

Petteri Pietikainen and Jesper Vaczy Kragh

The history of psychology in the Nordic countries has distinct similarities among the countries. For centuries, close cultural and scientific ties have existed between the five countries ... More

Psychoanalysis and Psychosomatics in Europe  

Silvia Degni

Psychosomatics concerns those physical disorders not caused by an organic event but caused by psychological events. These disorders, called “psychosomatic,” may involve different organs and ... More

Psychological Humanities, Sciences, and the Arts in Russia  

Julia Vassilieva

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
The interdisciplinary connections between psychology, the humanities, and the arts in Russia played a powerful role in delineating the unique character of the psychological field in the ... More

Psychological Knowledge in Brazilian Culture  

Marina Massimi

Online publication date:
Apr 2020
There are several aspects of the history of psychological knowledge in Brazilian culture for the period between the 16th and 18th centuries, some of which highlight the process of the ... More

Psychology and Oppression  

Wahbie Long

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
Psychology has always been a discipline immersed in the social and political currents of the day. At the level of psychological theory—whether one considers early pioneers such as Freud, ... More

Residues of (Post-)Kantian Philosophy in Early Scientific Psychology and Hermann von Helmholtz’s Idealism  

Liesbet de Kock

German scientist Hermann von Helmholtz (1821–1894) is widely acknowledged as one of the leading intellectuals and scientists of his time. Originally trained as a physiologist, Helmholtz ... More

Scientific Racism and North American Psychology  

Andrew S. Winston

Online publication date:
May 2020
The use of psychological concepts and data to promote ideas of an enduring racial hierarchy dates from the late 1800s and has continued to the present. The history of scientific racism in ... More

Scientific Studies of Dreams and Dreaming in the Late 19th and Early 20th Centuries  

Giorgia Morgese

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
In the second half of the 19th century, the study of the phenomenon of the dream was undertaken with “scientific” method, by physicians, physiologists, and psychiatrists before the birth of ... More

Self-Observation in Psychology  

Donald Brown, Karyna Pryiomka, and Joshua W. Clegg

Self-observation, an umbrella term for a number of methods associated with first-order accounts of mental activity (e.g. introspection) and first-person reporting, has been a part of ... More

Sexual Health and Sexual Behavior  

Sebastian E. Bartos

Both academic and lay definitions of sex vary. However, definitions generally gravitate around reproduction and the experience of pleasure. Some theoretical approaches, such as ... More

Social Development  

Ross D. Parke

Online publication date:
Jan 2020
Social development is the sub area of developmental psychology that concerns the description of children’s development of relationships with others, their understanding of the meaning of ... More

Social Gerontology Theories: Past, Present, and Future  

Jill Suitor, Megan Gilligan, Marissa Rurka, Yifei Hou, and Gulcin Con

Online publication date:
Jan 2019
Theories of social gerontology have progressed from a focus on individuals’ later-life decline to theories that emphasize the intra- and interindividual variability of later-life ... More