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Push and Pull: Biological and Psychological Models of Sexuality in Medical Sexology and Psychoanalysis (1870–1930)  

Harry Oosterhuis

Online publication date:
Jul 2020
Sexual science or sexology arose in the last three decades of the 19th century when psychiatrists and neurologists began to study and treat deviant sexualities as sickly “perversions.” The ... More

Qualitative Inquiry  

Jeanne Marecek and Eva Magnusson

Online publication date:
Jul 2020
Qualitative inquiry is a form of psychological research that seeks in-depth understanding of people and their social worlds. Qualitative researchers typically study the experiences of ... More

Reflexivity and the History of Psychology  

Jill Morawski

Online publication date:
Jul 2020
Reflexivity, a recursive process of turning back, occurs throughout science. Back-and-forth reflexive processes transpire when the scientist executes self-regard and whenever human science ... More

Residues of (Post-)Kantian Philosophy in Early Scientific Psychology and Hermann von Helmholtz’s Idealism  

Liesbet de Kock

German scientist Hermann von Helmholtz (1821–1894) is widely acknowledged as one of the leading intellectuals and scientists of his time. Originally trained as a physiologist, Helmholtz ... More

Scientific Racism and North American Psychology  

Andrew S. Winston

Online publication date:
May 2020
The use of psychological concepts and data to promote ideas of an enduring racial hierarchy dates from the late 1800s and has continued to the present. The history of scientific racism in ... More

Scientific Studies of Dreams and Dreaming in the Late 19th and Early 20th Centuries  

Giorgia Morgese

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
In the second half of the 19th century, the study of the phenomenon of the dream was undertaken with “scientific” method, by physicians, physiologists, and psychiatrists before the birth of ... More

Self-Observation in Psychology  

Donald Brown, Karyna Pryiomka, and Joshua W. Clegg

Self-observation, an umbrella term for a number of methods associated with first-order accounts of mental activity (e.g. introspection) and first-person reporting, has been a part of ... More

Sexual Health and Sexual Behavior  

Sebastian E. Bartos

Both academic and lay definitions of sex vary. However, definitions generally gravitate around reproduction and the experience of pleasure. Some theoretical approaches, such as ... More

Social Development  

Ross D. Parke

Online publication date:
Jan 2020
Social development is the sub area of developmental psychology that concerns the description of children’s development of relationships with others, their understanding of the meaning of ... More

Social Gerontology Theories: Past, Present, and Future  

Jill Suitor, Megan Gilligan, Marissa Rurka, Yifei Hou, and Gulcin Con

Online publication date:
Jan 2019
Theories of social gerontology have progressed from a focus on individuals’ later-life decline to theories that emphasize the intra- and interindividual variability of later-life ... More

Social Representation Theory: An Historical Outline  

Wolfgang Wagner

Online publication date:
Jul 2020
The concept of social representation (SR) was developed by Serge Moscovici in 1961 as a social psychological approach articulating individual thinking and feeling with collective ... More

Sources of the Self From the Renaissance to the 20th Century  

Elwin Hofman

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
The history of the self studies continuities and changes in ideas about and experiences of the individual mind through time, attending to questions of individuality, identity, stability, ... More

Spiritual and Religious Sources of Indian Psychology  

Kiran Kumar Keshavamurthy Salagame

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
Indian psychology is a nascent discipline, although it has a history that dates back many millennia. It differs from Western psychology both in its subject matter and its methodology. ... More

Successful Aging: History and Prospects  

John W. Rowe and Dawn C. Carr

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
While the factors that influence the well-being of individuals in late life have long been a major concern of research in aging, they have been a particularly active area of research and ... More

The Concept of Crisis in the History of Western Psychology  

Martin Wieser

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
With roots that range from medicine to politics, to jurisdiction and historiography in ancient Greece, the concept of “crisis” played an eminent role in the founding years of Western ... More

The Concept of Developmental Stage: Hall, Freud, and Piaget  

John Morss

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
Influential theorists of pre-adult phases of the development of the individual person (infancy, childhood, and adolescence) have articulated myriad versions of stage theories, varying in ... More

The History of Personnel and Vocational Testing  

Michael J. Zickar

Personnel and vocational testing has made a huge impact in public and private organizations by helping organizations choose the best employees for a particular job (personnel testing) and ... More

The History of Psychological Psychotherapy in Germany: The Rise of Psychology in Mental Health Care and the Emergence of Clinical Psychology During the 20th Century  

Lisa Malich

Online publication date:
May 2020
Two different but related developments played an important role in the history of psychologists in the fields of mental health care in Germany during the 20th century. The first development ... More

The Macy Conferences on Cybernetics: Reinstantiating the Mind  

Tara H. Abraham

Online publication date:
Apr 2020
The Macy Conferences on Cybernetics were a series of 10 interdisciplinary scientific meetings that took place in New York between 1946 and 1953. The meetings were sponsored by the Macy ... More

The Medicalization of Stress  

Vanessa L. Burrows

Stress has not always been accepted as a legitimate medical condition. The biomedical concept stress grew from tangled roots of varied psychosomatic theories of health that examined (a) the ... More

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