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Nicole D. Anderson
Healthy aging is accompanied by decrements in episodic memory and working memory. Significant efforts have therefore been made to augment episodic and working memory in healthy older adults. Two principal approaches toward memory rehabilitation adults are restorative approaches and compensatory approaches. Restorative approaches aim to repair the affected memory processes by repeated, adaptive practice (i.e., the trained task becomes more difficult as participants improve), and have focused on recollection training, associative memory training, object-location memory training, and working memory training. The majority of these restorative approaches have been proved to be efficacious, that is, participants improve on the trained task, and there is considerable evidence for maintenance of training effects weeks or months after the intervention is discontinued. Transfer of restorative training approaches has been more elusive and appears limited to other tasks relying on the same domains or processes. Compensatory approaches to memory strive to bypass the impairment by teaching people mnemonic and lifestyle strategies to bolster memory performance. Specific mnemonic strategy training approaches as well as multimodal compensatory approaches that combine strategy training with counseling about other factors that affect memory (e.g., memory self-efficacy, relaxation, exercise, and cognitive and social engagement) have demonstrated that older adults can learn new mnemonics and implement them to the benefit of memory performance, and can adjust their views and expectations about their memory to better cope with the changes that occur during healthy aging. Future work should focus on identifying the personal characteristics that predict who will benefit from training and on developing objective measures of the impact of memory rehabilitation on older adults’ everyday functioning.
Christopher Hertzog and Taylor Curley
Metamemory is defined as cognitions about memory and related processes. Related terms in the literature include metacognition, self-evaluation, memory self-efficacy, executive function, self-regulation, cognitive control, and strategic behavior. Metamemory is a multidimensional construct that includes knowledge about how memory works, beliefs about memory (including beliefs about one’s own memory such as memory self-efficacy), monitoring of memory and related processes and products, and metacognitive control, in which adaptive changes in processing approaches and strategies may be contemplated if monitoring of memory processes (encoding, retention, retrieval) indicates that alternative strategies may be required. Older adults generally believe that their memory has declined and that, on average, they have less control over memory and lower memory self-efficacy than young and middle-aged adults. Many but not all aspects of online memory monitoring are well preserved in old age, such as the ability to discriminate between information that has been learned versus not learned. A major exception concerns confidence judgments concerning whether recognition memory decisions are correct; older adults are more prone to high-confidence memory errors, believing they are recognizing something they have not encountered previously. The evidence regarding metacognitive control is more mixed, with some hints that older adults do not use monitoring to adjust control behaviors (e.g., devoting more time and effort to studying items they believe have not yet been well-learned). However, any age deficits in self-regulation based on memory monitoring or adaptive strategy use can probably be addressed through instructions, practice, or training. In general, older adults seem capable of exerting metacognitive control in memory studies, although they may not necessarily do so without explicit support or prompting.
Michael J. Lyons, Chandra A. Reynolds, William S. Kremen, and Carol E. Franz
The rapidly increasing number of people age 65 and older around the world has important implications for public health and social policy, making it imperative to understand the factors that influence the aging process. Twin studies can provide information that addresses critical questions about aging. Twin studies capitalize on a naturally occurring experiment in which there are some pairs of individuals who are born together and share 100% of their segregating genes (monozygotic twins) and some pairs that share approximately 50% (dizygotic twins). Twins can shed light on the relative influence of genes and environmental factors on various characteristics at various times during the life course and whether the same or different genetic influences are operating at different times. Twin studies can investigate whether characteristics that co-occur reflect overlapping genetic or environmental determinants. Discordant twin pairs provide an opportunity for a unique and powerful case-control study. There are numerous methodological issues to consider in twin studies of aging, such as the representativeness of twins and the assumption that the environment does not promote greater similarity within monozygotic pairs than dizygotic pairs. Studies of aging using twins may include many different types of measures, such as cognitive, psychosocial, biomarkers, and neuroimaging. Sophisticated statistical techniques have been developed to analyze data from twin studies. Structural equation modeling has proven to be especially useful. Several issues, such as assessing change and dealing with missing data, are particularly salient in studies of aging and there are a number of approaches that have been implemented in twin studies. Twins lend themselves very well to investigating whether genes influence one’s sensitivity to environmental exposures (gene-environment interaction) and whether genes influence the likelihood that an individual will experience certain environmental exposures (gene-environment correlation). Prior to the advent of modern molecular genetics, twin studies were the most important source of information about genetic influences. Dramatic advances in molecular genetic technology hold the promise of providing great insight into genetic influences, but these approaches complement rather than supplant twin studies. Moreover, there is a growing trend toward integrating molecular genetic methods into twin studies.
Ildiko Tombor and Susan Michie
People’s behavior influences health, for example, in the prevention, early detection, and treatment of disease, the management of illness, and the optimization of healthcare professionals’ behaviors. Behaviors are part of a system of behaviors within and between people in that any one behavior is influenced by others. Methods for changing behavior may be aimed at individuals, organizations, communities, and/or populations and at changing different influences on behavior, e.g., motivation, capability, and the environment. A framework that encapsulates these influences is the Behavior Change Wheel, which links an understanding of behavior in its context with methods to change behavior. Within this framework, methods are conceptualized at three levels: policies that represent high-level societal and organizational decisions, interventions that are more direct methods to change behavior, and behavior change techniques that are the smallest components that on their own have the potential to change behavior. In order to provide intervention designers with a systematic method to select the policies, interventions, and/or techniques relevant for their context, a set of criteria can be used to help select intervention methods that are likely to be implemented and effective. One such set is the “APEASE” criteria: affordability, practicability, effectiveness, acceptability, safety, and equity.
Joseph E. Gaugler, Colleen M. Peterson, Lauren L. Mitchell, Jessica Finlay, and Eric Jutkowitz
Mixed methods research consists of collecting and analyzing qualitative and quantitative data within a singular study. The “methods” of mixed methods research vary, but the ultimate goal is to provide greater understanding and explanation via the integration of qualitative and quantitative data. Mixed methods studies have the potential to advance our understanding of complex phenomena over time in adult development and aging (e.g., depression following the death of a spouse), but the utility of this approach depends on its application. The authors systematically searched the literature (CINHAL, Embase, Ovid/Medline, PubMed, PsychInfo, and ProQuest) to identify longitudinal mixed methods studies focused on aging. They identified 6,351 articles published between 1994 and 2017, of which 174 met the inclusion criteria. The majority of mixed methods studies reported on the evaluation of interventions or educational programs. Non-interventional studies tended to report on experiences related to the progression of various health conditions, the needs and experiences of caregivers, and the lived experiences of older adults. About half (n = 81) of the mixed methods studies followed a sequential explanatory design where a qualitative component followed quantitative evaluation, and most of these studies achieved “integration” by comparing qualitative and quantitative data in Results sections. There was considerable heterogeneity across studies in terms of overall design (randomized trials, program evaluations, cohort studies, and case studies). As a whole, the literature suffered from key limitations, including a lack of reporting on sample selection methodology and mixed methods design characteristics. To maximize the value of mixed methods in adult development in aging research, investigators should conform to recommended guidelines (e.g., depict participant study flow and use recommended notation) and consider more sophisticated mixed methods applications to advance the state of the art.
Alexandre J.S. Morin and David Litalien
As part of the Generalized Structural Equation Modeling framework, mixture models are person-centered analyses seeking to identify distinct subpopulations, or profiles, of participants differing quantitatively and qualitatively from one another on a configuration of indicators and/or relations among these indicators. Mixture models are typological (resulting in a classification system), probabilistic (each participant having a probability of membership into all profiles based on prototypical similarity), and exploratory (the optimal model is typically selected based on a comparison of alternative specifications) in nature, and can take different forms. Latent profile analyses seek to identify subpopulations of participants differing from one another on a configuration of indicators and can be extended to factor mixture analyses allowing for the incorporation of latent factors to the model. In contrast, mixture regression analyses seek to identify subpopulations of participants’ differing from one another in terms of relations among profile indicators. These analyses can be extended to the multiple-group and/or longitudinal analyses, allowing researchers to conduct tests of profile similarity across different samples of participants or time points, and latent transition analyses can be used to assess probabilities of profiles transition over time among a sample of participants (i.e., within person stability and change in profile membership). Finally, growth mixture analyses are built from latent curve models and seek to identify subpopulations of participants following quantitatively and qualitatively distinct trajectories over time. All of these models can accommodate covariates, used either as predictors, correlates, or outcomes, and can even be extended to tests of mediation and moderation.
Barbi Law, Phillip Post, and Penny McCullagh
Modeling and imagery are distinct but related psychological skills. However, despite sharing similar cognitive processes, they have traditionally been investigated separately. While modeling has shown similar psychological and physical performance benefits as imagery, it remains an understudied technique within applied sport psychology. Social cognitive and direct perception approaches remain often-used explanations for the effectiveness of modeling on skill acquisition; however, emergent neuropsychological explanations provide evidence to support these earlier theories and a link to the imagery literature.
With advances in technology and the development of applied frameworks, there is renewed interest in exploring modeling effects and how they parallel imagery use in applied settings. Specifically, modeling research has expanded beyond controlled laboratory settings to explore the effect of various theoretical models on motor performance and related cognitions within practice and competitive settings. The emergence of affordable video editing technology makes it easy for coaches and athletes to incorporate modeling into practice. The accessibility of video technology has sparked applied research on how various forms of modeling influence motor performance and cognitions, such as confidence and motivation. These applied investigations demonstrate the complementary nature of modeling and imagery in enhancing sport performance and skill acquisition, while highlighting the challenges in separating modeling and imagery effects. Both literatures offer possibilities for new methodological approaches and directions for studying these psychological skills in tandem as well as independently. Thus, there is much that imagery and modeling researchers can learn from each other in sport and other performance settings.
Johnson Ching Hong Li and Virginia Man Chung Tze
In behavioral, social, and developmental research, researchers often begin with a fundamental question that examines whether there is a significant relationship between an independent variable (IV; e.g., video games) and a dependent variable (DV; e.g., aggression). However, examining this simple IV-DV relationship is not sufficient in most research scenarios given that this relationship may differ across the levels of a third variable, which is known as a moderator. For example, researchers may examine the degree to which the relationship between an independent variable and a dependent variable differs across the levels of a moderator or moderators (e.g., gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, intervention) to provide a more complete picture of the IV-DV effect and how this effect is or is not applicable to certain groups of participants.
In lifespan developmental research, a key component lies in the study of change, growth, or trajectory of one’s life over time. Undoubtedly, not all individuals may follow the same developmental change or growth over time and examining moderators (e.g., gender, intervention, etc.) that may explain these individual changes is crucial for researchers to better understand the effects on their research investigation and for practical implications. The existing literature shows that conceptual and methodological strategies for moderation analysis have been developed and evolved in lifespan developmental psychology. In particular, researchers in lifespan developmental psychology have used various types of moderation analyses, including assessing whether moderators can explain the pretest and posttest difference based on the conventional analysis of variance (ANOVA) framework and evaluating whether moderators may explain how different individuals follow or deviate from the general growth and trajectory based on advanced latent growth curve modeling (LGCM). Researchers who study lifespan development have realized the importance of moderation effects in their work. In light of the complexity of current biological, psychological, and social factors embedded in lifespan developmental research, the trend of utilizing more sophisticated LGCM than ANOVA to understand the growth trajectories will receive more attention in the future.
Matthew S. Fritz and Ann M. Arthur
Moderation occurs when the magnitude and/or direction of the relation between two variables depend on the value of a third variable called a moderator variable. Moderator variables are distinct from mediator variables, which are intermediate variables in a causal chain between two other variables, and confounder variables, which can cause two otherwise unrelated variables to be related. Determining whether a variable is a moderator of the relation between two other variables requires statistically testing an interaction term. When the interaction term contains two categorical variables, analysis of variance (ANOVA) or multiple regression may be used, though ANOVA is usually preferred. When the interaction term contains one or more continuous variables, multiple regression is used. Multiple moderators may be operating simultaneously, in which case higher-order interaction terms can be added to the model, though these higher-order terms may be challenging to probe and interpret. In addition, interaction effects are often small in size, meaning most studies may have inadequate statistical power to detect these effects.
When multilevel models are used to account for the nesting of individuals within clusters, moderation can be examined at the individual level, the cluster level, or across levels in what is termed a cross-level interaction. Within the structural equation modeling (SEM) framework, multiple group analyses are often used to test for moderation. Moderation in the context of mediation can be examined using a conditional process model, while moderation of the measurement of a latent variable can be examined by testing for factorial invariance. Challenges faced when testing for moderation include the need to test for treatment by demographic or context interactions, the need to account for excessive multicollinearity, and the need for care when testing models with multiple higher-order interactions terms.
Glyn C. Roberts, Christina G. L. Nerstad, and P. Nicolas Lemyre
Motivation is the largest single topic in psychology, with at least 32 theories that attempt to explain why people are or are not motivated to achieve. Within sport psychology research, there are a plethora of techniques of how to increase and sustain motivation (strategies to enhance agency beliefs, self-regulation, goal setting, and others). However, when explaining the conceptual undergirding of motivation in sport, the why of motivation, two theories predominate: Achievement Goal Theory (AGT) and Self-Determination Theory (SDT). Both theories predict the same outcomes, such as increased achievement striving, sustained behavior change, and perceptions of well-being, but they differ in why those outcomes occur. AGT assumes that individuals cognitively evaluate the competence demands and meaningfulness of the activity, and that those perceptions govern behavior. SDT assumes that individuals are driven by three basic needs, competence, autonomy, and relatedness, and the satisfaction of those needs govern behavior. The following discusses both theories and concludes that each has their strengths and weaknesses.
Jessica L. David, Jesse A. Steinfeldt, I. S. Keino Miller, and Jacqueline E. Hyman
Multiculturalism is a broad term that encapsulates a number of idealistic constructs related to inclusion, understanding the diverse experiences of others, and creating equitable access to resources and opportunity in our society. Social justice activism is a core tenet of multiculturalism. In order to be optimally effective, multiculturalism needs to be an “action word” rather than a passive construct, one that is inextricably linked to the ability to commit to and engage in an agenda of social justice wherein the inclusive ideals of multiculturalism are actively sought out and fought for.
One such domain where the constructs of multiculturalism and social action are playing out in real time is within U.S. sport. U.S. athletes across all ranks (i.e., Olympic, professional, college, and youth sports) are actively engaging in social justice activism by using their platforms to advocate for equality and human rights. A recent display of activism that has garnered worldwide attention was the silent protest of former San Francisco 49ers quarterback Colin Kaepernick. During the National Football League (NFL) preseason games of the 2016 season, Kaepernick began kneeling during the playing of the U.S. national anthem as a means to protest racial injustice, police brutality, and the killing of African Americans. Since the start of his protest, athletes around the nation and the world have joined the activist–athlete movement, thereby raising awareness of the mistreatment of African Americans within U.S. society. The activist–athlete movement has amassed support and generated momentum, but consulting sport psychology professionals can adopt a more active role to better support athletes, thereby advancing the movement. Consulting sport psychologists can strive to better understand the nature of athlete-activism and aspire to help their athlete clients explore and express their opinions so they can work to effect meaningful societal change, using sport as the vehicle for their message.
Kimberly L. Fine and Kevin J. Grimm
Multilevel modeling is a data analytic framework that is appropriate when analyzing data that are dependent due to the clustering of observations in higher-level units. Clustered data appear in a variety of disciplines, which makes multilevel modeling a necessary data analytic tool for many researchers. Longitudinal data are a special kind of clustered data as the repeated observations are clustered within individuals. Multilevel models can be applied to longitudinal data to examine how individuals change over time and how individuals differ in their change processes over time. For longitudinal data, linear multilevel models, where the fixed- and random-effects parameters enter the model in a linear fashion, and nonlinear multilevel models, where at least one fixed-and/or random-effect parameter enters the model in a nonlinear fashion are commonly estimated to examine different forms of the individual change process. Multilevel structural equation modeling is an extension of multilevel modeling that allows for multivariate outcomes, and this framework is very useful for modeling multivariate longitudinal data (e.g., multivariate growth models and second-order growth models).
Anthony Randal McIntosh
Brain organization can be measured across multiple spatial and temporal scales where each scale affects the other in the emergent functions that are known as cognition. As a complex adaptive system, the interplay of these scales in the brain represents the information that ultimately supports what one thinks and does. The dynamics of these multiscale operations can be quantified with measures of complexity, which are sensitive to the balance between information that is coded in local cell populations and that is captured in the network interactions between populations. This local versus global balance has its foundation in the structural connectivity of the brain, which is then realized through the dynamics of cell populations and their ensuing interactions with other populations. Considering brain function and cognition in this way enables a different perspective on the changes in cognitive function in aging.
Changes in brain signal complexity from childhood to adulthood were assessed in two independent studies. Both showed that maturation is accompanied by an overall increase in signal complexity, which also correlated with more stable and accurate cognitive performance. There was some suggestion that the maximal change occurs in medial posterior cortical areas, which have been considered “network hubs” of the brain. In extending to the study of healthy aging, a scale-dependent change in brain complexity was observed across three independent studies. Healthy aging brings a shift in local and global balance, where more information is coded in local dynamics and less in global interactions. This balance is associated with better cognitive performance and, interestingly, in a more active lifestyle. It also seems that the lack of this shift in local and global balance is predictive of worse cognitive performance and potentially predictive of additional decline indicative of dementia.
Determining the mechanisms that underlie neurocognitive aging, such as compensation or dedifferentiation, and facilitating the development of effective strategies for cognitive improvement is essential due to the steadily rising aging population. One approach to study the characteristics of healthy aging comprises the assessment of functional connectivity, delineating markers of age-related neurocognitive plasticity. Functional connectivity paradigms characterize complex one-to-many (or many-to-many) structure–function relations, as higher-level cognitive processes are mediated by the interaction among a number of functionally related neural areas rather than localized to discrete brain regions. Task-related or resting-state interregional correlations of brain activity have been used as reliable indices of functional connectivity, delineating age-related alterations in a number of large-scale brain networks, which subserve attention, working memory, episodic retrieval, and task-switching. Together with behavioral and regional activation studies, connectivity studies and modeling approaches have contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms of age-related reorganization of distributed functional networks; specifically, reduced neural specificity (dedifferentiation) and associated impairment in inhibitory control and compensatory neural recruitment.
Joseph A. Mikels and Nathaniel A. Young
The adult life span is characterized as a time of divergent trajectories. It is a time of compounding losses (such as physical, sensory, and cognitive declines) and is also a time of surprising growth (such as improvements in well-being and emotion regulation). These divergent trajectories present theorists with the paradox of aging: in the face of accumulating losses, how is it that as people age, they generally feel good and experience greater well-being? Theorists have grappled with this paradox and have focused on how motivational, cognitive, control, and social factors impact emotional development across the adult life span. These foundational theories have paved the way to a deeper understanding of adult life-span development, but they do not draw as deeply from theories in affective science. Some of the latest perspectives on emotion and aging offer integrative views, such as how older adults may experience different discrete emotion (i.e., anger versus sadness) from an evolutionary functional perspective. Other perspectives consider how an array of appraisal processes may change across adulthood (such as shifts in evaluations of self-control versus other-control for younger versus older adults). These newer approaches dig deeper into mechanistic explanations and underscore the need for greater theoretical integration. Later life is clearly a time of increased well-being, but the field is only on the cusp of understanding the mysteries of emotional experience in later life.
Scott P. Johnson
Visual scenes tend to be very complex: a multitude of overlapping surfaces varying in shape, color, texture, and depth relative to the observer. Yet most observers effortlessly perceive that the visual environment is composed of distinct objects, laid out across space, each with a particular shape that can be inferred from partial views and incomplete information. Moreover, observers generally expect objects to be continuous across space and time, to have a certain shape, and to be solid in three-dimensional (3D) space. The cortical visual system processes information for objects first by coding visual features, then by linking features into units, and last by interpretation of units as objects that may be recognizable or otherwise relevant to the observer. This way of conceptualizing object perception maps roughly onto processes of lower-, middle-, and higher-level visual processing that have long formed the basis for investigations of visual perception in adults, as well as theories of object perception, the ways visual deprivation reduces object perception skills, and the developmental time course of object perception in infancy.
Jonathan S. Abramowitz
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is one of the most destructive psychological disorders. Its symptoms often interfere with work or school, interpersonal relationships, and with activities of daily living (e.g., driving, using the bathroom). Moreover, the psychopathology of OCD is seemingly complex: sufferers battle ubiquitous unwanted thoughts, doubts, and images that, while senseless on the one hand, are perceived as signs of danger on the other hand. The thematic variation and elaborate relations between behavioral and cognitive signs and symptoms can be perplexing to even the most experienced of observers. Cognitive-behavioral models of OCD explain these phenomena and account for their heterogeneity. These models also have implications for how OCD is treated using exposure and response prevention, which research indicates are effective short- and long-term interventions.
Occupational health psychology is concerned with improving the quality of work life and protecting and promoting the safety, health, and well-being of workers. Research and theoretical development in this area of psychology has focused on a number of core areas, particularly the study of workplace stress, health and safety at work, workplace aggression and bullying, work–life balance, and impact of the organization of work on health and well-being, including flexible work and new technology. Researchers have devoted attention to understanding the causes and mechanisms linking work design and organizational factors to health, safety, and well-being in the workplace, as well as developing interventions to improve work conditions and promote well-being. While much of this work has focused on alleviating negative effects (e.g., preventing disease and injury and reducing stress symptoms), positive psychology has influenced researchers to examine motivating effects that create the conditions for personal growth and learning (e.g., job crafting, thriving at work, and work engagement).
Neal M. Ashkanasy and Alana D. Dorris
Organizational behavior (OB) is a discipline that includes principles from psychology, sociology, and anthropology. Its focus is on understanding how people behave in organizational work environments. Broadly speaking, OB covers three main levels of analysis: micro (individuals), meso (groups), and macro (the organization). Topics at the micro level include managing the diverse workforce; effects of individual differences in attitudes; job satisfaction and engagement, including their implications for performance and management; personality, including the effects of different cultures; perception and its effects on decision-making; employee values; emotions, including emotional intelligence, emotional labor, and the effects of positive and negative affect on decision-making and creativity (including common biases and errors in decision-making); and motivation, including the effects of rewards and goal-setting and implications for management. Topics at the meso level of analysis include group decision-making; managing work teams for optimum performance (including maximizing team performance and communication); managing team conflict (including the effects of task and relationship conflict on team effectiveness); team climate and group emotional tone; power, organizational politics, and ethical decision-making; and leadership, including leadership development and leadership effectiveness. At the organizational level, topics include organizational design and its effect on organizational performance; affective events theory and the physical environment; organizational culture and climate; and organizational change.
Mark G. Ehrhart and Benjamin Schneider
Research on the internal psychosocial environment of work organizations has largely been captured through the study of two constructs: organizational climate and organizational culture. Despite the inherent similarities between the two constructs, they have largely been studied in separate literatures, by different sets of researchers, and more often than not with different methodologies. For instance, research in organizational climate tends to have a relatively narrow focus on the shared perceptions of employees, and contemporary climate research in particular tends to have a focus on specific strategic goals (such as climates for service or safety) or internal processes (such as climates for fairness or ethics). Organizational culture is broader than organizational climate, starting with deep-level assumptions and values and becoming manifest in almost all aspects of organizational life. A review of both literatures and the suggested integration of them leads to a rich understanding of how employees experience their work organizations and the consequences of organizational behavior for what happens in organizations for people and organizational effectiveness.