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The Macy Conferences on Cybernetics: Reinstantiating the Mind  

Tara H. Abraham

Online publication date:
Apr 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
History and Systems of Psychology
The Macy Conferences on Cybernetics were a series of 10 interdisciplinary scientific meetings that took place in New York between 1946 and 1953. The meetings were sponsored by the Macy ... More

Wisdom Across Cultures  

Igor Grossmann and Franki Kung

The concept of wisdom is ancient and deeply embedded in the cultural history of humanity. However, only since 1980s have psychologists begun to study it scientifically. Taking a culturally ... More

Anglo-American Psychology in the Cold War  

Marcia E. Holmes

Online publication date:
Mar 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
History and Systems of Psychology
From the end of World War II until roughly 1989, global leaders feared that cataclysmic war would break out between the world’s two superpower states, the Soviet Union and the United ... More

Gestalt Psychology  

Horst Gundlach

Online publication date:
Mar 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
History and Systems of Psychology
Gestalt psychology is an holistic approach to psychology launched in 1910 by three psychologists: Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Köhler, and Kurt Koffka. It was conceived to oppose elementary or ... More

Gustav Theodor Fechner: Psychophysics and Natural Science  

David Robinson

Online publication date:
Mar 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
History and Systems of Psychology
Gustav Theodor Fechner (b. 1801–d. 1887) is well known to psychologists as the founder of psychophysics, a set of methods for empirically relating measured sensory stimulus to reported ... More

Hypnotism and Suggestion: A Historical Perspective  

Peter Lamont

Online publication date:
Mar 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
History and Systems of Psychology
Franz Anton Mesmer’s theory of “animal magnetism” proposed that living organisms possess an invisible magnetic fluid, which can be influenced by a “magnetizer” and, by doing so, a variety ... More

The Origin of Psychology in the Humanities  

Sven Hroar Klempe

The term “psychology” was applied for the first time in the 16th century. Yet the most interesting examples appeared in three different contexts. The Croatian poet and humanist Marko ... More

Self-Observation in Psychology  

Donald V. Brown Jr., Karyna Pryiomka, and Joshua W. Clegg

Self-observation, an umbrella term for a number of methods associated with first-order accounts of mental activity (e.g. introspection) and first-person reporting, has been a part of ... More

Varieties of the Self From Self-Esteem to Self-Control  

Michael Pettit

Online publication date:
Mar 2020
Various self-concepts constitute major keywords in both psychological science and liberal political discourse. They have been central to psychology’s public-facing, policy-oriented role in ... More

William Stern (1871–1938), Eclipsed Star of Early 20th-Century Psychology  

James Lamiell

In the literature of mainstream scientific psychology, German scholar William Stern has been known primarily (if at all) as the inventor of the intelligence quotient (IQ). In fact, however, ... More

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