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Child Health in Latin America  

Célia Landmann Szwarcwald, Maria do Carmo Leal, Wanessa da Silva de Almeida, Mauricio Lima Barreto, Paulo Germano de Frias, Mariza Miranda Theme Filha, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira Domingues, Elisabeth Barboza Franca, Silvana Granado Nogueira da Gama, Cristiano Sigueira Boccolini, and Cesar Victora

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
Child health has been placed at the forefront of international initiatives for development. The adoption of the Millennium Development Goals has propelled worldwide actions to improve ... More

Community-Oriented Primary Health Care for Improving Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health  

Amira M. Khan, Zohra S. Lassi, and Zulfiqar A. Bhutta

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Nearly 80% of the world’s population lives in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and these regions bear the greatest burden of maternal, neonatal, and child mortality, with most of ... More

Convergence Theory and the Salmon Effect in Migrant Health  

Yudit Namer and Oliver Razum

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
For decades, researchers have been puzzled by the finding that despite low socioeconomic status, fewer social mobility opportunities, and access barriers to health care, some migrant groups ... More

Customer Assistance Programs and Affordability Issues in Water Supply and Sanitation  

Joseph Cook

Online publication date:
Jun 2020
Concerns about water affordability have centered on access to networked services in low-income countries, but have grown in high-income countries as water, sewer, and stormwater tariffs, ... More

Environmental Health Concerns From Unconventional Natural Gas Development  

Irena Gorski and Brian S. Schwartz

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Environmental Health, Global Health
Unconventional natural gas development (UNGD), which includes the processes of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing to extract natural gas from unconventional reservoirs such as ... More

Environmental Health in Latin American Countries  

Luiz Augusto Cassanha Galvao, Volney Câmara, and Daniel Buss

The relationship between environment and health is part of the history of medicine and has always been important to any study of human health and to public-health interventions. In Latin ... More

Health Care Access for Migrants in Europe  

Catherine A. O'Donnell

Migration is a reality of today’s world, with over one billion migrants worldwide. While many choose to move voluntarily, others are forced to migrate due to economic reasons or to flee ... More

Health Diplomacy in the Political Process of Integration in Latin America and the Caribbean  

Paulo Buss and Sebastián Tobar

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
The construction of the concepts of diplomacy and health diplomacy must consider their conceptions and practices, at both the global and regional levels. Health diplomacy is vitally ... More

Health Equity Metrics  

Juan Garay, David Chiriboga, Nefer Kelley, and Adam Garay

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
There is one common health objective among all nations, as stated in the constitution of the World Health Organization in 1947: progress towards the best feasible level of health for all ... More

Health for All and Primary Health Care, 1978–2018: A Historical Perspective on Policies and Programs Over 40 Years  

Susan B. Rifkin

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
In 1978, at an international conference in Kazakhstan, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children’s Fund put forward a policy proposal entitled “Primary Health ... More

Health in All Policies: Perspectives From the Region of the Americas  

Kira Fortune, Francisco Becerra, Paulo Buss, Orielle Solar, Patricia Ribeiro, and Gabriela E. Keahon

Online publication date:
May 2018
There is a broad consensus that the health of an individual or population is not influenced solely by the efforts of the formal health sector; rather, it is also defined by the conditions ... More

Health Policies and Systems in Latin America  

Asa Cristina Laurell and Ligia Giovanella

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
Since the early 1990s, health policy in Latin America has focused on reform in most countries with the explicit purpose to increase access, decrease inequity, and provide financial ... More

Health Status of Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Europe  

Rachel Humphris and Hannah Bradby

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
The health status of refugees and asylum seekers varies significantly across the European region. Differences are attributed to the political nature of the legal categories of “asylum ... More

History of Public Health in Latin America  

Marcos Cueto and Steven Palmer

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
From the late 19th to the late 20th century, Latin America was a developing region of the world in which public and private health discourses, practices, and a network of agencies were ... More

HIV Ed: A Global Perspective  

Ralph J. DiClemente and Nihari Patel

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
At the end of 2016, there were approximately 36.7 million people living with HIV worldwide with 1.6 million people being newly infected. In the same year, 1 million people died from ... More

Impacts of Climate Change on Workers’ Health and Safety  

Barry S. Levy and Cora Roelofs

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
Climate change has increased the risk to workers’ health and safety. Workers, especially those who work outdoors or in hot indoor environments, are at increased risk of heat stress and ... More

Mental Health of Migrant Children  

Saida M. Abdi

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
The psychosocial well-being of migrant children has become an urgent issue facing many Western countries as the number of migrant children in the population increases rapidly and ... More

Mental Health of Refugees  

Jutta Lindert

Online publication date:
Sep 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Global Health, Special Populations
People who are forcibly displaced are forced to flee by serious threats to fundamental human rights, caused by factors such as persecution, armed conflict, and indiscriminate violence. ... More

Migration and Obesity  

Solveig A. Cunningham and Hadewijch Vandenheede

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Epidemiology, Global Health, Special Populations
There are over 230 million international migrants worldwide, and this number continues to grow. Migrants tend to have limited access to and knowledge about resources and preventative care ... More

NGO Contributions to Community Health and Primary Health Care: Case Studies on BRAC (Bangladesh) and the Comprehensive Rural Health Project, Jamkhed (India)  

A. Mushtaque R. Chowdhury and Henry B. Perry

Online publication date:
Apr 2020
Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) working in developing countries are chiefly a post-World War II phenomenon. Though they have made important contributions to health and development ... More

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