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Diabetes in South Asians  

Sara Garduño‐Diaz and Santosh Khokhar

As of 2023, it is estimated that Type 2 diabetes (T2D) affects approximately 783 million people worldwide, with South Asians presenting the highest age-adjusted comparative diabetes prevalence among adults (90,204.5 people). Ethnicity has been highlighted as a major risk factor for the development of T2D with central adiposity, insulin resistance, and unfavorable lipid profile identified as predominant signals of alarm. Leading databases, including Web of Science, Medline, PubMed, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect, were consulted, and manual searches were carried out for cited references in leading diabetes-related journals. Genetic predisposition, central adiposity, and unfavorable lifestyles, including physical inactivity and an unhealthy diet, have been found to be associated with the prevalence of T2D in migrant South Asians. Additionally, “Westernization,” acculturation, socioeconomic factors, and lack of awareness regarding seriousness and consequences of the disease have also been identified as contributors to the development of T2D in this population. However, the higher prevalence of T2D in migrant South Asians may not be entirely attributed to genetic predisposition; hence, ethnicity and associated modifiable risk factors warrant further investigation. Preventive measures and appropriate interventions are limited by the lack of ethnic-specific cut-off points for anthropometric and biological markers, as well as by the absence of reliable methods for dietary and physical activity assessment.


Drowning: Global Burden, Risk Factors, and Prevention Strategies  

Aminur Rahman, Amy E. Peden, Lamisa Ashraf, Daniel Ryan, Al-Amin Bhuiyan, and Stephen Beerman

Drowning has been described as a major global public health problem and has recently been acknowledged by a United Nations Declaration on Global Drowning Prevention. While drowning impacts countries of all income levels, the burden is overwhelmingly borne by low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) who account for 90% of the global death toll. In addition, there is scarce data collection on drowning in LMICs, so the magnitude of drowning may be far greater than is represented. A range of factors including sex, age, education, income, access to water, a lack of swimming skills, certain occupations like commercial fishing, geographically isolated and flood-prone locations, preexisting medical conditions, and unsafe water transport systems, influence the risk of drowning. Some behavioral factors, such as alcohol or drug consumption, not wearing life jackets, and engaging in risky behaviors such as swimming or boating alone, increase drowning risk. Geopolitical factors such as migration and armed conflict can also impact drowning risk. There is a growing body of evidence on drowning prevention strategies. These include pre-event interventions such as pool fencing, enhancing community education and awareness, providing swimming lessons, use of lifejackets, close supervision of children by adults, and boating regulations. Interventions to reduce harm from drowning include appropriate training for recognition of a drowning event, rescue, and resuscitation. An active and/or passive surveillance system for drowning, focusing on individual settings and targeting populations at risk, is required. Drowning requires coordinated multisectoral action to provide effective prevention, rescue, and treatment. Therefore, all countries should aim to develop a national water safety plan, as recommended in the WHO Global Report on Drowning. Further research is required on the epidemiology and treatment of drowning in LMICs as well as non-fatal and intentional drowning in both high-income countries (HICs) and LMICs. Effective and context-specific implementation of drowning prevention strategies, including pilot testing, scale up and evaluation, are likely to help reduce the burden of both fatal and non-fatal drowning in all countries.


Prevention of Suicide  

Danuta Wasserman

Around 700,000 people take their lives each year worldwide. Suicide accounts for approximately 1.3% of all deaths and therefore represents a major public health problem. The global age-standardized suicide rate is 9 per 100,000 population, yet there are large variations among genders, ages, countries, and world regions. The stress–vulnerability model of suicidal behaviors has been proposed to explain how a diathesis, developed through the influence of genetic and neurodevelopmental factors in relation to perinatal, postnatal, and life experiences, interacts with different risk and protective factors that either decrease or enhance the individual’s level of resilience to stress and suicidal risk. Public health suicide prevention strategies include suicide means restriction, reducing harmful substance use, promoting responsible media reporting, public-awareness campaigns, gatekeeper trainings, school-based interventions, crisis helplines, and postvention. Mental health strategies comprise identification, treatment, and rehabilitation of persons in distress and at risk for suicide. Multicomponent strategies that use a combination of evidence-based methods from public and mental health sectors are recommended. Future work should aim at enhancing the quality of epidemiological data, improving the research on protective and ideation-to-action factors, expanding the quantity and quality of data coming from low- and middle-income countries, and evaluating the cost-effectiveness of different suicide prevention strategies.