Summary and Keywords
Political Islam has generated two ideological strands that use religious ideology to advance their goals, namely, Islamism and jihadism. On the one hand, Islamists have formulated a political paradigm premised on Islamic teachings that are adaptable to the secular framework of the modern state and have, therefore, endured both as domestic and global political actors. On the other hand, jihadis have rejected positive law outright and advanced a global revolutionary paradigm against today’s secular world order. Key to jihadism’s appropriation of Islamic teachings is a quest for a legal code that provides jihadis with both an anti-establishment justification for their violence and a claim to legitimacy in the minds of Muslims whom they wish to enlist as their followers.
Keywords: political Islam, Islamism, jihadism, positive law (al-qawanin al-wad‘iyya), defensive jihad (jihad al-daf‘), offensive jihad (jihad al-talab), extremism (ghuluw), takfir, al-Qa‘ida, the Islamic State.
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