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Muslim-Christian Relations: Historical and Contemporary Realities  

Jane Smith

Online publication date:
Apr 2015
Throughout the nearly fifteen centuries of Muslim-Christian encounter, individual adherents of both traditions often have lived peaceably with each other. At the same time, Muslim ... More

Muslim-Jewish Relations  

Reuven Firestone

Online publication date:
Jan 2016
Muslim-Jewish relations began with the emergence of Islam in 7th-century Arabia, but contacts between pre-Jewish Israelites and pre-Muslim Arabs had been common for nearly two millennia ... More

Muslims in Russia and the Successor States  

James H. Meyer

Online publication date:
May 2019
The history of Muslim populations in Russia and other former republics of the Soviet Union is long and varied. In a Pew–Templeton poll conducted in Russia in 2010, 10 percent of ... More

Mysticism in Martin Luther’s Development and Thoughts  

Volker Leppin

Martin Luther’s spiritual and theological development was deeply rooted in mystical traditions. During his early years as an Augustinian friar, he experienced mystical visions following ... More

Mysticism in Sufi Islam  

David Cook

Online publication date:
May 2015
Sufism is the major expression of mysticism in Islam. While Sufism developed out of the fusion of Qur’anic ascetic tendencies and the vast fund of Christian (and other) mystical sayings ... More

Naikan: A Meditation Method and Psychotherapy  

Clark Chilson

“Naikan” 内観 is a self-reflective form of meditation founded by Yoshimoto Ishin 吉本伊信 (1916–1988), who developed it from a lay Shin Buddhist practice called mishirabe身調べ. After Yoshimoto ... More

Narratives of Buddhist Relics and Images  

Stephen C. Berkwitz

Relics and images of the Buddha and of other awakened beings occupy important places in ritual practice throughout the Buddhist world. Their significance and sacrality are evidenced by the ... More

National Elections and Religion in America  

Frank Lambert

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Religious engagement in America’s national elections occurs within a changing religious and political landscape and therefore requires an analytical framework that accounts for change over ... More

Native American Religions  

Sarah E. Dees

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Native American religious traditions encompass a diverse array of beliefs, practices, and features of material culture and society that reflect and shape individual experiences and ... More

Native Americans, Law, and Religion in America  

Michael P. Guéno

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Religion was a point of cultural conflict, political motivation, and legal justification throughout the European and American colonization of North America. Beginning in the 14th century, ... More

Nativism and Religion in America  

Rodger M. Payne

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Nativism describes an ideology that favors the rights and privileges of the “native born” population over and against those of “foreign” status, however these categories might be defined ... More

Natural Space and Religion in North America  

Joseph Witt

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Raymond Williams once noted that “nature” remains one of the most complex words in the English language. While “nature” may commonly refer to nonhuman places, or spaces largely outside of ... More

Natural Theology and Natural Law in Martin Luther  

Knut Alfsvåg

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
For Luther, the understanding of the world is determined by his theology of creation, according to which the world is created as an expression of the creative love of the eternal God. ... More

Nature and Religion in America  

Brett Grainger

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
One of the most complex words in the English language, “nature” (sometimes personified as “Nature” or “Mother Nature”) has been central to developments in American religions. Despite their ... More

New Spiritualities in Western Society  

Adam Possamai

Various social and cultural changes from modernity to late modernity have been key to the appearance and development of new spiritualities in Western society. The often-contested term of ... More

Niche Construction and Religious Evolution  

Agustín Fuentes

Online publication date:
Oct 2015
In an evolutionary context neither religion nor religiosity can appear full-blown, and thus it is valuable to search for the kinds of structures, behaviors, and cognitive processes that ... More

Nominalism and the Via Moderna in Luther’s Theological Work  

Pekka Kärkkäinen

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Luther’s adoption of the theology of the via moderna (also called the Nominalists) varied during the late medieval period. This school of thought had developed during the 15th century ... More

Non-Martial and Martial Methods to an Ultimate Political Goal of the Tiger Movement in Sri Lanka  

Peter Schalk

Online publication date:
May 2016
The Tiger Movement had one ultimate political goal, and two main alternating methods to reach this goal, which was to obtain recognition by world community for the right of ... More

Objects and Ancient Religions  

Jay Johnston

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Objects are implicit in understanding ancient religious practice. Taken as any material artifact used by an individual practitioner, faith community, or religious hierarchy for devotional ... More

Online Media and Religion in America  

Adam Bajan and Heidi A. Campbell

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
New and emerging media has played a pivotal role in Christianity throughout history. In early times, the Christian message was disseminated directly from Jesus and his followers to growing ... More

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