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Tantric Buddhism in Japan: Shingon, Tendai, and the Esotericization of Japanese Buddhisms  

David L. Gardiner

Published Online:
Aug 2018
Subject:
Buddhism
From the early 9th century a new orientation emerged in Japanese Buddhism that emphasized specific Tantric, or Vajrayāna characteristics of both doctrine and practice. While elements of ... More

The Book of Revelation: The Apocalypse of Jesus Christ  

Christopher Rowland

Published Online:
Apr 2016
The Revelation of Jesus Christ, or the Apocalypse of John, has been extraordinarily influential in Christian life and theology. For example, because of the many hymns sung by the heavenly ... More

The Imamura Families and the Making of American Buddhism  

Michihiro Ama

Published Online:
Jan 2019
The Imamura families primarily refer to Emyō Imamura (1867–1932) and Kanmo Imamura (1904–1986), who each made great contributions to “American Buddhism.” Although a definition of American ... More

The Marketplace and Religion in America  

Daniel Silliman

Published Online:
Oct 2017
There is a long and complicated relationship between religious activities and marketplace activities in the United States. Despite popular expectations that these spheres of life, the ... More

Theological Language in Martin Luther  

Joachim Ringleben

In Christianity, theological language must be understood against the background of the multifaceted semantic field of Logos. “Logos” (as “word” and as “linguistic reason”) is used in ... More

Theravāda Buddhism  

Sven Bretfeld

Published Online:
Jul 2019
Theravāda Buddhism is a neologism denoting a variety of historically connected religious traditions. Today these traditions are predominantly spread in Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, ... More

Thought Experiments and Religion  

Yiftach Fehige

Thought experiments are basically imagined scenarios with a significant experimental character. Some of them justify claims about the world outside of the imagination. Originally they were ... More

Tibetan Book of the Dead (Bardo Thödol)  

Casey Alexandra Kemp

Published Online:
Aug 2016
Subject:
Buddhism, Texts
Although in Tibet there is no single text directly referred to as the Tibetan Book of the Dead, this English work is the primary source for Western understandings of Tibetan Buddhist ... More

Tibetan Buddhism and the Gesar Epic  

Solomon George FitzHerbert

In both eastern Tibet and in Mongolia, the Buddhist cult surrounding the figure of Ling Gesar (Gling ge sar) or Geser Khan in Mongolian versions is an outgrowth of Gesar’s standing as the ... More

Tibetan Buddhist Power Objects  

James Duncan Gentry

As Tibetans began to import Buddhist scriptures and translate them into the Tibetan language in the 8th and 9th centuries, they also imported items like relics, reliquaries, statues, ... More

Tourism to Sacred Places in America: A Spatial Analysis  

Jeremy R. Ricketts

At its founding, the United States did not have a long history nor an official state religion to draw from to construct a national identity, so Americans turned to the creation of sacred ... More

Transmission of Buddhist Media and Texts  

Daniel Veidlinger

Published Online:
Jan 2018
Subject:
Buddhism, Texts
Different media have been used to spread the teachings of Buddhism, and they have exerted a significant influence upon the development of Buddhist ideas and institutions over time. An oral ... More

Tri Songdétsen  

Brandon Dotson

Published Online:
Jul 2017
Emperor Tri Songdétsen (Khri Srong lde brtsan; 742–c.800 ce) is one of the most fascinating figures in Tibet’s religious and political history. He played a central role in shaping the ... More

The Twofold Rule of God  

John R. Stumme

During the 20th century there was a remarkable change in the interpretation of Martin Luther’s approach to society. During the 19th and first part of the 20th centuries, many understood ... More

The Uganda Martyrs Guild  

Heike Behrend

Published Online:
Aug 2016
The Uganda Martyrs Guild (UMG) was founded in 1897, after the killing of a number of young Catholics, Protestants, and Muslims, who had worked as pages at the court of the king of Buganda. ... More

Ugaritic and Biblical Literature  

Mark S. Smith

The Ugaritic texts provide a rich resource for understanding the Late Bronze Age kingdom of Ugarit, located on the coast of Syria. The site has yielded about two thousand tablets in ... More

The Uniting Church in Australia  

Robert W. Gribben

Published Online:
Mar 2018
Subject:
Christianity
The Uniting Church in Australia (1977) faces the challenge of both being faithful to its inherited traditions (Methodist and Reformed), and taking the opportunity to draw on contemporary ... More

Urban Space and Religion in the United States  

Katie Day

Religion has always been a contextually based phenomenon, particularly in urban space. Cities of every size, in every period, and in every region of the country have been defined by the ... More

U.S. Foreign Mission Movement, c. 1800–1860  

Emily Conroy-Krutz

Published Online:
Feb 2017
In the early 19th century, American Protestants began to send missionaries abroad as part of the foreign mission movement. They were responding to the Great Commission of the Bible: to go ... More

U.S. Foreign Policy and Religion  

Malcolm Magee

Published Online:
Dec 2017
The United States has been uniquely God-centered among Western nations, and that includes its foreign policy. From George Washington to the present, all presidents and policymakers have ... More

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