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The Gift in Martin Luther’s Theology  

Bo Kristian Holm

In analyzing the role of gift and giving in Martin Luther’s theology, one almost inevitably has to deal with the contrast between Marcel Mauss’s description of archaic gift economy, where ... More

God and Chance: Christian Perspectives  

David J. Bartholomew

Online publication date:
Apr 2016
In many quarters God and chance are still seen as mutually exclusive alternatives. It is common to hear that ascribing anything to “chance” rules out God’s action. Recent ... More

God in Martin Luther  

Jan-Olav Henriksen

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Luther’s understanding of God saturates his oeuvre, and in turn, this understanding is saturated by his doctrine of the justification of the sinner. God is the sovereign source and origin ... More

God in the Old Testament  

Brent A. Strawn

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Religion. Please check back later for the full article. The God ... More

Gods in Ancient Egypt  

Oskar Kaelin

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
The ancient Egyptians were surrounded by various manifestations of their many gods. Though their gods usually lived in heaven or in the netherworlds, they were permanently represented on ... More

Gods in Ancient Greece and Rome  

Matt Dillon

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
The religions of both the ancient Greeks and Romans were polytheistic (with many gods), but centered on a finite and homogenous group of deities who were worshipped through prayer, animal ... More

Governance in Classical Islamic Thought  

Ovamir Anjum

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
Governance in Islamic history has taken many different forms. The formative period saw most innovative deployment of the Arab tribal norms under the guidance of Islamic norms and the ... More

Greek and Roman Priests and Religious Personnel  

Robert Garland

Online publication date:
Apr 2016
The Christian word “priest,” which is generally used to translate the Greek word hiereus and the Latin word sacerdos, only inadequately captures the essence of how those who bore this ... More

Healing and Religion in the United States  

Brett Hendrickson

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Religions, in almost every case, are concerned with healing the sick and the broken. Of course, healing is not the sole feature or function of religion, but for many people, restoration of ... More

Hinduism in America  

Amanda Lucia

Online publication date:
Jan 2017
Hinduism came to the United States first in the American imagination and only second with emissaries and immigrants from India. The initial features of Hinduism that captivated North ... More

Hispanics and Religion in America  

Kristy Nabhan-Warren

What is today known as U.S. “Hispanic” culture is in reality a diverse array of ethnic, regional, national, and religious peoples and communities. Hispanic Americans trace their lineage ... More

History of Ancient Israel  

H. G. M. Williamson

Online publication date:
Sep 2015
The history of ancient Israel is best known to most people from the narratives in the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament. There, however, the name “Israel” covers a wide diversity of social and ... More

History of Buddhisms in China: The Nanbeichao Period (Late 4th Century to the Sui Dynasty)  

Henrik H. Sørensen

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
The period from the 3rd to the late 6th century, variously known as the period of the Northern and Southern States (Nanbeichao) and the Six Dynasties period (Liuchao) signals a formative ... More

The History of the Modern Liturgical Movement  

Keith F. Pecklers

Online publication date:
Sep 2015
Subject:
Christianity
The 20th-century liturgical movement grew in tandem with the biblical, ecumenical, ecclesiological, and patristic movements, all part of a wider movement of resourcement—a return to ... More

Homa: Tantric Fire Ritual  

Richard K. Payne

The homa is a votive offering involving the construction of a fire in a hearth-altar, and the immolation of offerings in the fire. The altar is homologized with a mandala, and as with ... More

Homeric Religion: The Gods and the Poet  

Elizabeth Minchin

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
The epics that are associated with Homer’s name, the Iliad and the Odyssey, emerge from a long tradition of oral song that extends back into the Late Bronze Age. The poems themselves, ... More

The Idea of Black Religion  

Jamil W. Drake

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
It is impossible to provide a conclusive definition of the idea of black religion; however, certain themes, tropes, and characteristics are typically associated with the “black” in black ... More

Ideas of the Afterlife in American Religion  

Kathryn Gin Lum

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Heaven and hell have survived in the United States beyond scientific critiques of the supernatural. For many Americans, the promise of eternal rewards and the threat of everlasting ... More

Imperialism, Mission, and Global Power Relations in East Asian Religions in the United States  

Connie A. Shemo

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
The history of East Asian religions in the United States is inextricably intertwined with the broader history of United States–East Asian relations, and specifically with U.S. imperialism. ... More

The Incarnation in Martin Luther’s Theology  

Anne Käfer

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Luther’s understanding of the Incarnation concerns various subject areas in his theology, among them his understanding of scripture, his teaching on the sacraments in particular, as well ... More

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